The research methodology is the vast domain and in the present research study some its few aspects are covered. In the present research study purpose of observation and its varied merits and demerits are explained in detail. Further, the ways in which bias factor can be minimized is also explained in detail (Collison, and Marchesseault, 2018). Ways in which online questionnaire can be administered also discusses in detail in the report. Principles of words are discussed briefly and role that data collection in multiple ways plays in avoiding bias factor is also explained in detail in the report.
Purpose of observation, advantages and disadvantages of this research approach to collecting data
Observation is the one of the varied approaches that is used for collecting data. In this approach one just observes sample units and collects data. There are basically two types of approaches in observation one in which individual reveal its identity and in another one researcher did not reveal its identity and purpose to those whom it is observed on the field. The main purpose behind selecting observation method of research is to make sure that data collected is valid and reliable in nature. Many times it happened that during research respondents give false statements and data collected remain far from reality. The observation method to assist researcher to avoid that situation (Sessler, and Imrey, 2015). One by observing sample units ensures that it will be able to collect reliable and authentic data. In case researcher wants to collect data in natural setting, then also it use observation method to collect data. Sometimes a researcher develops a controlled environment and it intends to find out that in the controlled situation, how sample units react then in that case it also make use of observation method in the research. Many times it happened that for the specific research topic, there is a probability that individuals will not be able to give the correct answer. Means that in real situation, respondents can react to situation in a better way then answer they give on asking questions. In case of such kind of scenario also observation method is used by the researcher.
Advantages of using observation method for data collection
• In case researcher intends to develop comprehensive understanding about the individual’s behavior in the specific situation observation method can be used by the researcher.
• There is high reliability of the data that is gathered by following observation method unless there is no business from the side of the observer (Mansell, and Huddy, 2018).
• Interesting fact is that in case of observation method one did not need to approach each sample unit alone. One just observe group of people and collect data.
• Observation can be done by using advanced cameras and by using them for long term observation can be done in a better way and more extensive data can be collected by the researcher.
• By using observation method researcher easily identify the main reason behind the problem and ways that the problem can be solved (Cuervo‐Cazurra, and et.al., 2017).
Disadvantage of observation
• Cost of doing observation remains high in the research as it can be observed that for doing observation high quality of the camera and other equipments are required. Cost of purchase of these equipments remains high in the business.
• One of the major limitations is that opinion about an individual’s cannot be measured in this approach and one by observing others form its opinion. If a researcher has biases, then in that case it will observe only those things which it intends to see and the results will be wrong (Phakiti, and et.al., 2018).
• Doing observation is the time consuming process.
• In many cases researcher alone by doing researcher cannot understand the problem in a proper manner.
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that observation method has many merits and demerits. The main disadvantage of the observation method is that with it bias factor is closely associated. One by considering its opinions collects data and conduct experiment and due to this reason it cannot conduct observation in a fair manner. Solution of the problem is that one must have a higher self awareness level and proper training must be given to the observers. Technology advancement makes it very easy for one to collect data and analyze it online. Principles of words must be followed while developing a questionnaire. Results validity and reliability can be checked by reviewing other research papers that were published in the past. By collecting data by adopting multiple approaches it can be ensured that the data is unbiased and reliable results can be conducted from the research study.
Books and Journals
Bairagi, V.. and Munot, M. V., 2019. Research methodology: A practical and scientific approach. CRC Press.
Bilau, A. A., Witt, E.. and Lill, I. 2018. Research methodology for the development of a framework for managing post-disaster housing reconstruction. Procedia engineering. 212. 598-605.
Blessinger, P. 2015. Educational research methodology framework. Higher Education Tomorrow. 2.
Bøe, M., Hognestad, K.. and Waniganayake, M. 2017. Qualitative shadowing as a research methodology for exploring early childhood leadership in practice. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 45(4). 605-620.
Clarke, E.. and Visser, J. 2019. Pragmatic research methodology in education: possibilities and pitfalls. International Journal of Research & Method in Education. 42(5). 455-469.
Collison, H.. and Marchesseault, D. 2018. Finding the missing voices of sport for development and peace (SDP): Using a ‘Participatory social interaction research’methodology and anthropological perspectives within African developing countries. Sport in Society. 21(2). 226-242.
Cuervo‐Cazurra, A. and et.al., 2017. Research methodology in global strategy research. Global Strategy Journal. 7(3). 233-240.
Daniel, B. K. 2018. Contestable professional academic identity of those who teach research methodology. International Journal of Research & Method in Education. 41(5). 548-561.
Elgort, I. 2018. Technology-mediated second language vocabulary development: A review of trends in research methodology. calico journal. 35(1). 1-29.
Jokela‐Pansini, M. 2019. Multi‐sited research methodology: Improving understanding of transnational concepts. Area. 51(3). 516-523.
Kovalevska, I., Barabash, M.. and Snihur, V. 2018. Development of a research methodology and analysis of the stress state of a parting under the joint and downward mining of coal seams. Mining of Mineral Deposits, (12, Iss. 1). 76.
Krishnaswamy, K. N. 2016. Management Research Methodlogy: Integration of Principles, Medthods and Techniques. Pearson Education India.
Long, Q. 2016. A novel research methodology for supply network collaboration management. Information Sciences. 331. 67-85.
Mansell, W.. and Huddy, V. 2018. The assessment and modeling of perceptual control: a transformation in research methodology to address the replication crisis. Review of General Psychology. 22(3). 305-320.
McKelvie, S.. and Standing, L. G. 2018. Teaching psychology research methodology across the curriculum to promote undergraduate publication: an eight-course structure and two helpful practices. Frontiers in Psychology. 9. 2295.
McPhail, G.. and Lourie, M. 2017. Getting real: is realism a blind spot in research methodology?. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies. 52(2). 285-299.
Melnikovas, A. 2018. Towards an explicit research methodology: Adapting research onion model for futures studies. Journal of Futures Studies. 23(2). 29-44.
Phakiti, A. and et.al., 2018. The Palgrave handbook of applied linguistics research methodology. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sessler, D. I.. and Imrey, P. B. 2015. Clinical research methodology 3: randomized controlled trials. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 121(4). 1052-1064.
Sun, M.. and Lipsitz, S. R., 2018. Comparative effectiveness research methodology using secondary data: A starting user’s guide. In Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations (Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 174-182). Elsevier.
Thomson, R.. and McLeod, J. 2015. New frontiers in qualitative longitudinal research: An agenda for research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 18(3). 243-250.