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STATISTICS: Quantitative analysis

Introduction
In current time period, it can be commonly observed, people saying that they are earning less and it’s become hard to meet all needs on time. Socioeconomic status or social class plays crucial role in determining pay. It can be seen in the India that Muslims are in minority and economically they are not strong, the majority of them are not highly educated and due to this reason income level of Muslims is low in the India. Due to low education Muslims are earning less relative to other social groups. In the same way it can be observed that those who are in the Jain community in the India earn high and basically make career in accounting domain. Every social group has a different profile from others in terms of education, occupation and income. Thus, pay scale across social groups remains quite different and this reflects that there is relationship between socioeconomic structure and pay that is observed in the society. So, basically the main question to study is that if social economic status or social class affects pay too large extent or slight change is seen in pay across social class. This topic is important for the Government departments or Government, which sometimes prepare policies for uplifting particular community. The results of such kind of research studies to assist them to make more accurate and prudent decisions.
Prior knowledge
Research paper reflected that cultural diversity or social groups have an impact on the labor market outcomes like wages (The regional impact of cultural diversity on wages: Evidence from Australia., 2016). In this research, longitudinal data of varied regions is used to conduct research studies. The findings of this research study reflect that present level of cultural diversity has positive impact on the regional wages. This happened because each social group has different education level and behavior and due to this reason they got different amount of wages at the workplace (Garner and Mahatmya, 2015).
Another research paper that is evaluated is based on education and wage relationship in context of Saudi Arabia. This research paper states that investment in human capital is the major reason behind Saudi Arabia growth (The effect of education and experience on wages: The case study of Saudi Arabia., 2018). In Saudi Arabia difference in individual income can be seen easily and this happened due to difference in educational qualifications. Results obtained in this research study indicate that whether an individual is male or female working in public or private sector its income depend on education level it possess. The same thing is indicated by other research studies that are taken into account in this research paper. These research studies also reflect that considering education level of individual salaries is paid to the employees at the workplace (Wetherall and et.al., 2015).


CONCLUSION
On the basis of analysis, it is identified that improvement in education level and occupation income level get improved. Mixed and East Asians earn more than other ethnic groups. Results obtained from the current research study and previously analyzed are giving the same results. The strength of the research study is that regression analysis tool is used to analyze results. The limitation is that there are a number of outlets and are not removed due to which there heteroskedasticity in the data is set. Individuals must focus on their skill development so that occupation can be changed and more income can be earned on job.

REFERENCE
Books and journals
Chatterjee, S. and Hadi, A. S., 2015. Regression analysis by example. John Wiley & Sons.
Fox, J., 2015. Applied regression analysis and generalized linear models. Sage Publications.
Garner, P. W. and Mahatmya, D., 2015. Affective social competence and teacher–child relationship quality: race/ethnicity and family income level as moderators. Social Development. 24(3). 678-697.
Killewald, A. and García-Manglano, J., 2016. Tethered lives: A couple-based perspective on the consequences of parenthood for time use, occupation, and wages. Social Science Research. 60. 266-282.
Preoţiuc-Pietro, D.and et.la., 2015. Studying user income through language, behaviour and affect in social media. PloS one. 10(9).
Schroeder, L. D., Sjoquist, D. L. and Stephan, P. E., 2016. Understanding regression analysis: An introductory guide (Vol. 57). Sage Publications.
Wetherall, K. and et.al., 2015. Explaining the income and suicidality relationship: Income rank is more strongly associated with suicidal thoughts and attempts than income. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. 50(6). 929-937.
Wurm, M. and Taubenböck, H., 2018. Detecting social groups from space–Assessment of remote sensing-based mapped morphological slums using income data. Remote Sensing Letters. 9(1), 41-50.
Online
The effect of education and experience on wages: The case study of Saudi Arabia., 2018. [Online]. Available through:< https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322598565_The_Effect_of_Education_and_Experience_on_Wages_The_Case_Study_of_Saudi_Arabia>.
The regional impact of cultural diversity on wages: Evidence from Australia., 2016. [Online]. Available through:< https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40176-016-0060-4>.

Quantitative Analysis: Social class project details

INTRODUCTION
Presently, income disparity is observed across the globe and there are a number of reasons behind this. It is observed in many research studies that socioeconomic status plays crucial role in determining pay that individual received directly or indirectly. It is usually seen in India that different religions and communities have different profile with respect to the income level. In the India Jain population is very small but in monetary terms they are very strong then other religions like Muslims. Jain community is highly rich and educated community. It is the highest level of education that is playing a crucial role in making them a success. Jain community people often make their career in accounting field. Muslims, mainly work in the low category of jobs. Thus, it can be said that each social group has a different profile with respect to income, education and occupation, etc. This is the reason due to which pay scale is observed across social groups quite different from each other across social groups. In other words, it can be said that there is a close association between social groups and income level. Considering these facts, basic research question is prepared is whether social class has any sort of impact on pay or slight change is seen in pay across social classes. Government of the nation often prefers to gather such kind of data because by using same data they come to know that which social groups are in poor condition. For those social groups Government of nation develop specific policy.
Prior knowledge
In many companies due importance is given to the cultural diversity because researches indicate that those companies that have diversified workforce grow at a fast pace. Research paper that is taken into account also certifies the fact that social groups and salary they received are very closely related to each other (Lloyd-Sherlock and et.al., 2017). Like other research studies in this also same result obtained and it was identified that cultural diversity and wages are very positively correlated to each other (Kim and Kwon., 2015).
Education and wages are also very closely correlated with each other and more individual is educated it earn more. It can be seen that in the IT industry those regularly develop their skills set grow at a fast pace in the career and earn higher amounts of salary. Research paper based in Saudi Arabia is evaluated and it is identified that major finding of the research paper was that education and income are related to each other (Jerrim and Macmillan, 2015). In Saudi Arabia whether individual is male or female and work in any sector based on education qualification received a specific amount of salary. This thing is also observed in other research studies because higher education means individuals have a number of unique skills (Schroeder, Spieß and Storck, 2015). More skills mean more pay.
Close association is observed between occupation and wage that individual earns. If an individual is doing any sort of highly technical work, then in that case it earn higher amounts of salary than those who do basic level of work (Niessen and et.al., 2018). Companies believed that in order to do the particular job specific level of skill and intellectual capability is required. Hence, those jobs where more intellectual capability is required more salary is paid by the company. Same results are obtained on the previously conducted research studies and they also indicate that professionals like Doctors, Scientists and Engineers earn more because their work requires the use of high level of knowledge and skills (Qureshi, Hashmi and Faisal,. 2015).
Overall, it can be deduced that there is no single factor that play vital role in determining individual income level. Education level, work individual do and skills it have determined the level of pay that one will receive on the job. If any society has a strong economic background, then in that case education level of that society also remain high which means building more financially strong society. People must focus on education so that earning can be improved with passage of time.


CONCLUSION
Education level and social groups as well as occupation heavily affect income level. Previous research studies also reveal same things. The weak point of the study is that due to spike in the data set assumption of homoscedasticity is violated. People must try to develop their skills so that more income can be earned on the job.

REFERENCE
Books and journals
Cressie, N. 2015. Statistics for spatial data. John Wiley & Sons.
Gravetter, F. J. and et.al., 2020. Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences. Cengage Learning.
Jerrim, J.. and Macmillan, L. 2015. Income inequality, intergenerational mobility, and the Great Gatsby Curve: Is education the key?. Social Forces. 94(2). 505-533.
Kim, S.. and Kwon, S. 2015. Impact of the policy of expanding benefit coverage for cancer patients on catastrophic health expenditure across different income groups in South Korea. Social Science & Medicine. 138. 241-247.
Lloyd-Sherlock, P. and et.al., 2017. Diseases of the rich? The social patterning of hypertension in six low-and middle-income countries. The European Journal of Development Research. 29(4). 827-842.
Niessen, L. W. and et.al., 2018. Tackling socioeconomic inequalities and non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries under the Sustainable Development agenda. The Lancet. 391(10134). 2036-2046.
Qureshi, F. Q., Hashmi, J.. and Faisal, Z. 2015. The Impact of Gender, Income and Occupation on Fashion Consciousness. World Journal of Social Science. 5(2).
Schroeder, C., Spieß, C. K.. and Storck, J. 2015. Private spending on children’s education: Low-income families pay relatively more. DIW Economic Bulletin. 5(8). 113-123.
Online
The connection between education, income inequality and unemployment., 2017. [Online]. Available through:< https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-connection-between-ed_b_1066401>.

Quantitative analysis on Globalization

INTRODUCTION
Globalization is the buzzing word of the 21st century. Globalization refers to the spread of the products, technology and job across national borders and culture. Globalization due to cross border flow of capital, labor and goods creates more jobs and promote economic growth across nations. However, growth and job creation is not evenly distributed across nations and industries. Globalization leads to disruption of industries in many nations. For example in USA textile industry heavily damaged due to globalization. On the other hand, in Mexico corn farming heavily affected due to globalization (Im, and et.al., 2019). In the present research focus is on identifying the role of globalization in promoting inequality in terms of income among people in the nation. In this regard automation as the factor is taken through which globalization promotes income inequality within the nation. Thus, aim of the research study is given below.
“To identify role that globalization play in promoting automation across industries in nation and its impact on work and role in widening income inequality”
Globalization makes it easier for the firms to start a business in another nation. When any Western world company commences business in the Asia or another continent, it also brings its innovative and latest technology with it. Such kind of technology makes firm competitive then rivals in the new market. Thus, to remain competitive local firms also adopt automation related technologies (automated machines) in their business. Consequently, due to automation tasks that require low skilled labor reduced to a great extent (Miller, 2016). Hence, firm pay low wages to the labor as their significance reduced in the workplace. Moreover, to operate the entire system related to automation technology firms keep highly skilled employee and firm pay large packages to them. The largest amount that is paid to the skilled labor is compensated by low pay that is made to the low skilled labor. This promotes income inequality in the nation and richer become more wealthy and poor become more poor.

Conclusion
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that globalization plays an important role in promoting automation across nations and industries. Due to automation labor intensive tasks are automated. Hence, labors intellect and skills are less required and due to this reason less is paid to them. On the other hand, firms are able to make more effective use of those who are working in middle and upper level and due to this good hike are given to them in salary. Hence, income inequality is observed in the nation due to automation of tasks which originate because world is now becoming a global village.

REFERENCES
Books and Journals
Im, Z. J. and et.al., 2019. The “losers of automation”: A reservoir of votes for the radical right?. Research & Politics. 6(1) 2053168018822395.
Miller, C. C. 2016. The long-term jobs killer is not China. It’s automation. The New York Times. 21.
Smith, J. E. 2017. Nowhere to go: Automation, then and now part two. Brooklyn Rail.
Romero, D. and et.al., 2016. The operator 4.0: human cyber-physical systems & adaptive automation towards human-automation symbiosis work systems. In IFIP international conference on advances in production management systems (pp. 677-686). Springer, Cham.
Frey, C. B. 2019. The technology trap: Capital, labor, and power in the age of automation. Princeton University Press.
David, H. J. J. O. E. P. 2015. Why are there still so many jobs? The history and future of workplace automation. Journal of economic perspectives. 29(3). 3-30.
Vardi, M. Y. 2016. Globalization, computing, and their political impact. Communications of the ACM. 59(11). 5-5.
Lacity, M. C. and Willcocks, L. 2016. Rethinking legal services in the face of globalization and technology innovation: the case of radiant law. Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases. 6(1). 15-22.
Rodrik, D. 2018. Populism and the Economics of Globalization. Journal of international business policy. 1(1-2). 12-33.

Decision making and Problem solving

(a)
“Take away Dinners” is the one of the chains of the restaurants in the UK. The firm offers multiple varieties of edible items to the people. Due to COVID 19 pandemic Government place restrictions on opening of restaurants. In June month Government give this order. Restaurant observed that in its business in the last 12 months it earns very low revenue and further due to COVID 19 its revenue decline sharply in the year. The firm is also offering online order facility but then also it did not see any sort of growth in its revenue during current time period when more and more individuals are placing order online for edible items. Thus, it can be said that in the current time period condition of its business is not good and it is observed high cost pressure. There may be a number of reasons behind decline in revenue. One of the reason may be that firm failed to give proper quality of food to the customers. It is also possible that customers have the perception that restaurant offer them edible items at high prices. Too many varieties in menu card may be another reason behind decline in revenue. In below sections survey will be conducted and possible reason behind poor performance will be identified by the researcher.
(b)
The business problem is that firm is losing its customers and within a year, month by month it is a consistent observing decline in its revenue. The Even restaurant chain is offering online order facility, then also during COVID 19 lockdown and afterwards restaurant did not observe elevation in its revenue. This is one of the major concerns of the restaurant chain. Risks that are in the business are that if currently also people think that restaurant chain is not offering them best quality of edible item that it may affect restaurant chain brand image and reputation in the market (Van Aken, and Berends, 2018). Due to a consistent decline in revenue restaurant chain may observe insufficient cash flow in the business which may affect its business operations to a great extent. Multiple decisions need to be made by the restaurant chain about its pricing, cost control strategy, menu, marketing, product line, etc. By working on all these area restaurant chains can improve its performance and elevate revenue in its business.

REFERENCES
Books and Journals
Filimonau, V. and Gherbin, A., 2017. An exploratory study of food waste management practices in the UK grocery retail sector. Journal of Cleaner Production. 167. 1184-1194.
Fletcher, A. J., 2017. Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method. International journal of social research methodology. 20(2). 181-194.
Flick, U., 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Sage.
Humphries, B., 2017. Re-thinking social research: anti-discriminatory approaches in research methodology. Taylor & Francis.
Kumar, R., 2019. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Sage Publications Limited.
Mackey, A. and Gass, S. M,. 2015. Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge.
Ørngreen, R. and Levinsen, K., 2017. Workshops as a Research Methodology. Electronic Journal of E-learning. 15(1). 70-81.
Van Aken, J. E. and Berends, H., 2018. Problem solving in organizations. Cambridge university press.