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Research Plan: World Store

Introduction
World Stores are the one of the UK online furniture company. The company receives online orders for furniture’s and according to design customer chose or design he suggests furniture is prepared. In the year 2010 company was UK leading furniture e-commerce Company. The firm was founded in the year 2008 and by the year 2010 it gain popularity in the UK. Due to poor quality of service further firm image become badly among people. Further, World Stores were acquired by another company Dunelm. There were many reasons behind failure of World Stores in the domestic market. There were issues related to quality assurance and quality control and many other project management related aspects of the business. In the present research study detail investigation will be done about reasons due to which firm failed in its business even it perform well in the domestic market (The UK’s biggest startups failures., 2019). In this regard, firm business operations and services will be evaluated on the basis of project management concepts. Loopholes will be identified in the services of the World Store services. On the basis of analysis of entire work reader will come to know about reasons due to which firm, even after getting huge success in the domestic market become failed. Varied authors literatures will be reviewed and critical analysis will be done in the report. Thereafter, a research methodology section will be prepared in the report. In the research methodology section varied things will be explained in detail like approach of data collection, data analysis, philosophy, ethics, research method, etc. In this section varied alternatives are evaluated and on the basis of valid reasons and considering research requirements best one will be selected for present research work. By doing deep analysis and detailed argument best way of conducting research will be identified. In this way, entire research work will be carried out in the present research study.
Aim and objectives
The main aim of the present research study is to identify reasons due to which project management has due importance for the firms. The aim is to identify the extent to which mismanagement of the project may lead to failure of the project. The research report is focused on evaluating business operations of the World Stores and varied project management concepts that can be applied in the business to make project successful.
Objectives
• To identify areas where World Stores make a mistake which lead to failure of business.
• To identify project management concepts that World Stores need to apply in its business to improve its performance.
• To recommend steps those firms must take to improve their performance in the business from project management point of view.

CONCLUSION
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that World Store initially achieves good success in the UK market but later it failed in the mentioned nation. There were a number of reasons behind this and one of them is that it failed to maintain product quality. The company provides poor quality of service to its customers through its customer care centers. Moreover, it failed to make available products to the people according to their needs and requirements. This was the main reason behind dissatisfaction of customers and due to this reason firm failed in the market. In case firm follow project management approach like quality control and quality management then in that case it was possible for the firm to improve its service quality and survive in the market. Firm after achieving success in the market assume that its product it widely acceptable, but it does not pay any sort of emphasis on its service quality. This was the big mistake that the firm makes in its business. By following quality control and management approaches firm can keep a close eye on its business operations and identify loopholes in it. By identifying loopholes firm can work on it to improve business performance. World Store makes mistakes and it just laid down special emphasis on customer acquisition and forget about its service quality. Hence, ultimately it failed in the domestic market where earlier it observes huge success in the business.

REFERENCE
Books and Journals
Attia, M.. and Edge, J. 2017. Be (com) ing a reflexive researcher: a developmental approach to research methodology. Open Review of Educational Research. 4(1). 33-45.
Berzisa, S. 2015. Application of Project Management Information Systems in Efficiency Improvement of Quality Management System. In Proceedings of the 10th International Scientific and Practical Conference. Volume III (Vol. 17, p. 21).
Fletcher, A. J. 2017. Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method. International journal of social research methodology. 20(2). 181-194.
Flick, U. 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Sage.
Hornstein, H. A. 2015. The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management. 33(2). 291-298.
Ingason, H. T. 2015. Best project management practices in the implementation of an ISO 9001 quality management system. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 194(3). 192-200.
Kerzner, H. 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Kumar, R. 2019. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Sage Publications Limited.
Lui, R. W. and et.al., 2015. PMS–A simulation game for interactive learning of software project management. In Technology in Education. Transforming Educational Practices with Technology (pp. 104-115). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Mackey, A.. and Gass, S. M. 2015. Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge.
Mane, P. P.. and Patil, J. R. 2015. Quality management system at construction project: A questionnaire survey. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications. 5(3). 126-130.
Mohajan, H. K. 2018. Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People. 7(1). 23-48.
Mukhopadhyay, M. 2020. Total quality management in education. SAGE Publications Pvt. Limited.
Oakland, J. S.. and Marosszeky, M. 2017. Total construction management: Lean quality in construction project delivery. Taylor & Francis.
Rakos, J. and et.al., 2015. The practical guide to project management documentation. John Wiley & Sons.
Rehacek, P. 2017. Application and usage of the standards for project management and their comparison. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 12(4). 994-1002.
Shaari, N. and et.al., 2015. Practices for project quality management systems (pqms) in construction project. Jurnal Teknologi. 77(26).
Varajão, J., Colomo-Palacios, R.. and Silva, H. 2017. ISO 21500: 2012 and PMBoK 5 processes in information systems project management. Computer Standards & Interfaces. 50. 216-222.
Zeng, J., Phan, C. A.. and Matsui, Y. 2015. The impact of hard and soft quality management on quality and innovation performance: An empirical study. International journal of production economics. 162. 216-226.
Online
The UK’s biggest startups failures., 2019. [Online]. Available through:< https://about.beauhurst.com/blog/uks-biggest-startup-failures/>

Research Plan: ALDI

Introduction
Introduction to ALDI
Aldi is a global retail chain that is operating in multiple nations of the world. Currently, Aldi is operating in the 20 nations of the world. It has over more than 10,000 stores across the globe. More than €50 billion is the company turnover. In the year 1946 company was founded by Karl and Theo Albrecht. Firm is operating in the multiple nations of the world like Germany, Australia, Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland and Italy. Firm has 2,298 outlets in Germany, 1,886 in Australia, 891 in the France, 827 in the UK and 1,992 in the United States. is one of the well known retail chains in the UK (Tyler., 2018). All-day today has thousands of stores across the world. ALDI is known for making available products at a lower price to the people. In current time period, it can be observed that Tesco like large retail giant face tough competition from ALDI because of latter company unique business model. Aldi under its business model make purchases of goods from small size companies whose products are not popular in the market. These products are easily available at cheaper price to the Aldi and due to this reason mentioned firm is able to make available products at cheaper price to the customers then Tesco. The difference is that Tesco sold branded products and Aldi sold non branded products under its own brand name. Products supplied by Aldi are very competitive in nature and due to this reason customers remain satisfied from the Aldi. Currently, due to corona pandemic less number of people prefers to visit retail stores. Hence, firm start online grocery service in the market.
Scenario
In the present research study attempt is made to identify the impact of online grocery retailing on organization and customers. The main intention is to identify whether online grocery retailing become successful in the market. The intention is also to identify the impact that this model has on firm and customers. Implementation of online model proved challenging for the companies and there were a number of reasons behind this. Due to corona pandemic individuals start placing orders in large quantity on portals (Koirala and Acharya, 2020). They try to overstock edible items and other FMCG products. Hence, due to a sudden elevation in demand of the products there was a shortage of inventory and retailers were not able to meet needs of the customers on time. Customers have to wait for opening of delivery window. Moreover, many times it happened that goods accurately not delivered to the customers and some items got missed or wrong items were delivered to the customers. Hence, firms were not able to meet customers’ needs in proper manner and many times customers also remain dissatisfied from the firm services. This is the reason due to which it becomes very important to identify whether online service benefit firms during corona situation.
Aim of research
The report is intended to study the impact of online grocery shopping portal on organization and customers.
Research question of the study is as follows.
• What is the impact of online grocery shopping portal on organization and customers?
• What is the influence of grocery online shopping portal on revenue growth?
• What is the influence of online grocery shopping portal on customer satisfaction?
• What is the influence of online grocery shopping portal on customer convenience?
Rationale of research
It was necessary to conduct the research study because due to corona factoring firms face a lot of factors in doing business even they are facing losses in the business. In such kind of situation, business firms are identifying unique ways to handle the situation. Aldi adopt an online retail model in its business. Customers face many problems in this model and remain dissatisfied. Thus, it becomes imperative to identify whether online model proved successful for the firms during corona pandemic and if yes then how much it proved effective for the mentioned retail chain.

Conclusion and recommendation
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that online grocery shopping greatly affects Aldi and its customers. Customers receive benefits from such kind of efforts of the Aldi. Audio was one of the first retail chains that offer grocery products online in the UK. By making available necessity items online firm provide safety and facility to the customers. Individuals often think that if they will visit any place where there is crowd then probability of being suffered from corona increased to great extent. Hence, they try to avoid visiting retail stores. Aldi by going online took right steps and it successfully creates new customers and retain old one in the business. This is evident from the fact that online traffic of the firm is increasing consistently and revenue increase multifold for Aldi through its website. Aldi joined hands with courier company Deliveroo and due to this reason it is now able to deliver ordered items on time with full accuracy to the customers. Overall, it can be said that Aldi try to give good experience to the customers.
However, initially Aldi face lots of problems in its business in the online model. At the time, when the lockdown was placed due to corona individuals start doing overstock of goods at the workplace. On the other hand, due to corona supply chain also gets disrupted and due to this reason also there were fewer inventories (Liu, Lee and Lee, 2020). Hence, the firm was not able to serve customers on time on a specific date on which they intend to get delivery of the product. Moreover, due to heavy pressure on limited workforce, many times it happened that wrong items are delivered to the customers. This leads to customer dissatisfaction. However, Aldi deal with the situation and under this it enters into an agreement with the courier company Deliveroo and make sure that parcels will be delivered on time to them. Some of recommendations are given below.
• It is recommended that Aldi must focus on basic necessity items like food items etc to meet customers’ needs. Basic necessity items are those that individuals require in every condition. More firms will be able to make available these basic items to the people to demand it will be able to keep customers in the business. It is recommended that firm must increase suppliers in its business. By increasing suppliers Aldi will be able to serve customers in better way.
• Aldi have already signed contracts with delivery, but it still need to pay more attention on timely delivery of ordered items. It cannot delay delivery of parcels. Hence, considering this factor, it is recommended that Aldi either must increase its workforce or it must contact for any other courier company (Gaur, Sahu and Singh, 2020). By doing so it will more be able to deliver goods on time even due to specific reason suddenly demand increase in the market. In situation of corona Aldi need to prepare itself for every situation.
• It is also recommended that Aldi must use BI system or any system by using which prediction can be made about the future. According to the estimations, fresh order must be placed for the purchase of varied items (Simbolon and Riyanto, 2020). By doing so it will be ensured that basic necessity items will always be available to the firm on its shelf or in the warehouse. Aldi will become one stop shop where customers will get all required items on demand and they will not move to any other retailer.
• It is also recommended that to earn more revenue firm must do FB marketing. Aggressive campaign must be run on FB because by doing so more customers can be attracted to the business. Aggressive marketing will assist firm to create new customers and retain old one in the business.

REFERENCE
Books and Journals
Beraha, I.. and Đuričin, S. 2020. The Impact of COVID-19 Crisis on Medium-sized Enterprises in Serbia. Economic Analysis. 53(1). 14-27.
Bhatti, A. and et.al., 2020. E-commerce trends during COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking. 13(2). 1449-1452.
Brubacher, L. J. and et.al., 2020. Mapping the Maternal Health Research Landscape in Nunavut: A Systematic Search & Critical Review of Methodology. Social Science & Medicine. 113206.
Coelho, P. M. and et.al., 2020. Sustainability of reusable packaging-Current situation and trends. Resources, Conservation & Recycling: X. 100037.
Engelhardt, N. and et.al., 2020. What Drives Stocks during the Corona-Crash? News Attention vs. Rational Expectation. Sustainability. 12(12). 5014.
Flögel, F.. and Gärtner, S. 2020. The COVID‐19 Pandemic and Relationship Banking in Germany: Will Regional Banks Cushion an Economic Decline or is A Banking Crisis Looming?. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. 111(3). 416-433.
Gaur, S., Sahu, H. and Singh, K., 2020. ICT-Enabled Business Promotion Approach Through Search Engine Optimization. In Fourth International Congress on Information and Communication Technology (pp. 487-495). Springer, Singapore.
Greenstein, S. 2020. Uncomfortable Economic Waters. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 40(04). 134-136.
Holtemöller, O.. and Muradoglu, Y. G. 2020. Corona shutdown and bankruptcy risk (No. 3/2020). IWH Online.
Kitrar, L., Lipkind, T.. and Ostapkovich, G. 2020. The Performance of Business and Consumer Sentiment for Early Estimates of GDP Growth: Old Turning Points and New Challenges of the Corona Crisis. Higher School of Economics Research Paper No. WP BRP. 110.
Kitsos, T. 2020. The Uneven Spatial Footprint of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Shutdown. City REDI Blog. 21.
Koirala, J.. and Acharya, S. 2020. Impact of Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19 or 2019-nCoV) on Nepalese Economy. Available at SSRN 3560638.
Kotaskova, A. and et.al., 2020. Significant Aspects of Managing Personnel Risk in the SME Sector. Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society. 15(2). 203-218.
Liu, Y., Lee, J. M. and Lee, C., 2020. The challenges and opportunities of a global health crisis: the management and business implications of COVID-19 from an Asian perspective. Asian Business & Management. 1.
Maharani, S.. and Wulandari, D. S. 2020. Corona Virus and Its Effect to Personal and Community in the Interest Being Entrepreneurs at Ponorogo, Indonesia. Jurnal Intelek. 15(2).
Mardiansyah, D. 2020. The Corona Virus and Labor Rights Issues: How Do Workers Get Their Rights?. The Indonesian Journal of International Clinical Legal Education. 2(2). 129-146.
Masudin, I.. and Safitri, N. T. 2020. Food Cold Chain in Indonesia during the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Current Situation and Mitigation. Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri. 9(2). 99-106.
Nguyen, T. P.. and Dao, T. B. 2020. Internal Rating System for Corporate Customers of Commercial Banks in Vietnam: Corona Pandemic Impact Adjusted. Asian Journal of Accounting and Finance. 2(2). 28-34.
Ojha, S.. and Shubha, M. 2020. COVID-19: Anticipating A Dramatic Collapse And A Recessionary Phase In The World Economy. Archives of Business Research. 8(5). 1-7.
Pasukodewo, T. and Susanti, N., 2020. The Impact of Profitability on Stock Valuation and Its Impact on Corporate Value. International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486). 9(2). 46-55.

Research proposal: How Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics is shaping the future of Education?

Title
How Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics is shaping the future of Education.
Summary
Almost every sector and business functions are trying to leverage the implementation of AI. However, implementation of IT for education sector is relatively low. Challenges for schoolteachers have always been regarding the personal education of the child (Brady et.al. 2012). And also it is being difficult for the teachers to develop interest of the students in learning. To gather the interest of learning it has become important for the educational sectors to move towards AI and robotics.
AI can play one of the effective role in enhancing personalisation and efficiency. AI offers extensive range of learning tools that rapidly design the learning and bring effective designing in the curriculum. AI enables teachers to attract students towards learning and enhance the quality and personalised experience of the students (Russell and Norvig, 2016). The future of education is the support of AI analytics that will analyse the strengths and weakness of the students and assess their progress of learning (Anthes, 2017). Current proposal covers the background to the research and deliverables are based on achieving aims and objectives at the end of the research. Proposal shows the clear plan with the support of Gantt chart that would be followed to complete the research on time and as per the available resources.

Justification of Resources
This is one of the PhD proposal that would be completed itself by the researcher. It will follow suitable steps of researching, collecting and analysing the data. The qualitative information would be carried out with the help of interview from teachers and for that effective questionnaire would be designed. In the current research, no additional cost of personnel is required to complete the research (Mutch, 2013). The researcher will need access towards carrying out the In-depth literature review. Having effective knowledge of the research topic is one of the essential deliverables of the research. For conducting the research, there are requirements of hardware and software equipments (Kumar, 2019). General resources such as laptop are required to store the data and Network connection will be acquired to collect the qualitative aspects of information. Researcher will try to follow certain ethics of optimum utilisation of resources and no other resources such as paper would be wasted.
References
Books and Journals
Anthes, E., 2017. The shape of work to come. Nature News, 550(7676), p.316.
Brady, M., Gerhardt, L.A. and Davidson, H.F. eds., 2012. Robotics and artificial intelligence (Vol. 11). Springer Science & Business Media.
Brinkmann, S. and Kvale, S., 2015. Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing (Vol. 3). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kazakoff, E.R., Sullivan, A. and Bers, M.U., 2013. The effect of a classroom-based intensive robotics and programming workshop on sequencing ability in early childhood. Early Childhood Education Journal, 41(4), pp.245-255.
Kumar, R., 2019. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Sage Publications Limited.
Miller, D.P. and Nourbakhsh, I., 2016. Robotics for education. In Springer handbook of robotics (pp. 2115-2134). Springer, Cham.
Miller, T., Birch, M., Mauthner, M. and Jessop, J. eds., 2012. Ethics in qualitative research. Sage.
Mutch, C., 2013. Doing educational research. Nzcer Press.
Ospennikova, E., Ershov, M. and Iljin, I., 2015. Educational robotics as an inovative educational technology. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 214, pp.18-26.
Russell, S.J. and Norvig, P., 2016. Artificial intelligence: a modern approach. Malaysia; Pearson Education Limited,.
Silverman, D. ed., 2016. Qualitative research. Sage.
Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.
Timms, M.J., 2016. Letting artificial intelligence in education out of the box: educational cobots and smart classrooms. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), pp.701-712.

Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach

INTRODUCTION
The research methodology is the vast domain and in the present research study some its few aspects are covered. In the present research study purpose of observation and its varied merits and demerits are explained in detail. Further, the ways in which bias factor can be minimized is also explained in detail (Collison, and Marchesseault, 2018). Ways in which online questionnaire can be administered also discusses in detail in the report. Principles of words are discussed briefly and role that data collection in multiple ways plays in avoiding bias factor is also explained in detail in the report.
TASK 1
Purpose of observation, advantages and disadvantages of this research approach to collecting data
Observation is the one of the varied approaches that is used for collecting data. In this approach one just observes sample units and collects data. There are basically two types of approaches in observation one in which individual reveal its identity and in another one researcher did not reveal its identity and purpose to those whom it is observed on the field. The main purpose behind selecting observation method of research is to make sure that data collected is valid and reliable in nature. Many times it happened that during research respondents give false statements and data collected remain far from reality. The observation method to assist researcher to avoid that situation (Sessler, and Imrey, 2015). One by observing sample units ensures that it will be able to collect reliable and authentic data. In case researcher wants to collect data in natural setting, then also it use observation method to collect data. Sometimes a researcher develops a controlled environment and it intends to find out that in the controlled situation, how sample units react then in that case it also make use of observation method in the research. Many times it happened that for the specific research topic, there is a probability that individuals will not be able to give the correct answer. Means that in real situation, respondents can react to situation in a better way then answer they give on asking questions. In case of such kind of scenario also observation method is used by the researcher.
Advantages of using observation method for data collection
• In case researcher intends to develop comprehensive understanding about the individual’s behavior in the specific situation observation method can be used by the researcher.
• There is high reliability of the data that is gathered by following observation method unless there is no business from the side of the observer (Mansell, and Huddy, 2018).
• Interesting fact is that in case of observation method one did not need to approach each sample unit alone. One just observe group of people and collect data.
• Observation can be done by using advanced cameras and by using them for long term observation can be done in a better way and more extensive data can be collected by the researcher.
• By using observation method researcher easily identify the main reason behind the problem and ways that the problem can be solved (Cuervo‐Cazurra, and et.al., 2017).
Disadvantage of observation
• Cost of doing observation remains high in the research as it can be observed that for doing observation high quality of the camera and other equipments are required. Cost of purchase of these equipments remains high in the business.
• One of the major limitations is that opinion about an individual’s cannot be measured in this approach and one by observing others form its opinion. If a researcher has biases, then in that case it will observe only those things which it intends to see and the results will be wrong (Phakiti, and et.al., 2018).
• Doing observation is the time consuming process.
• In many cases researcher alone by doing researcher cannot understand the problem in a proper manner.


CONCLUSION
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that observation method has many merits and demerits. The main disadvantage of the observation method is that with it bias factor is closely associated. One by considering its opinions collects data and conduct experiment and due to this reason it cannot conduct observation in a fair manner. Solution of the problem is that one must have a higher self awareness level and proper training must be given to the observers. Technology advancement makes it very easy for one to collect data and analyze it online. Principles of words must be followed while developing a questionnaire. Results validity and reliability can be checked by reviewing other research papers that were published in the past. By collecting data by adopting multiple approaches it can be ensured that the data is unbiased and reliable results can be conducted from the research study.

REFERENCES
Books and Journals

Bairagi, V.. and Munot, M. V., 2019. Research methodology: A practical and scientific approach. CRC Press.
Bilau, A. A., Witt, E.. and Lill, I. 2018. Research methodology for the development of a framework for managing post-disaster housing reconstruction. Procedia engineering. 212. 598-605.
Blessinger, P. 2015. Educational research methodology framework. Higher Education Tomorrow. 2.
Bøe, M., Hognestad, K.. and Waniganayake, M. 2017. Qualitative shadowing as a research methodology for exploring early childhood leadership in practice. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 45(4). 605-620.
Clarke, E.. and Visser, J. 2019. Pragmatic research methodology in education: possibilities and pitfalls. International Journal of Research & Method in Education. 42(5). 455-469.
Collison, H.. and Marchesseault, D. 2018. Finding the missing voices of sport for development and peace (SDP): Using a ‘Participatory social interaction research’methodology and anthropological perspectives within African developing countries. Sport in Society. 21(2). 226-242.
Cuervo‐Cazurra, A. and et.al., 2017. Research methodology in global strategy research. Global Strategy Journal. 7(3). 233-240.
Daniel, B. K. 2018. Contestable professional academic identity of those who teach research methodology. International Journal of Research & Method in Education. 41(5). 548-561.
Elgort, I. 2018. Technology-mediated second language vocabulary development: A review of trends in research methodology. calico journal. 35(1). 1-29.
Jokela‐Pansini, M. 2019. Multi‐sited research methodology: Improving understanding of transnational concepts. Area. 51(3). 516-523.
Kovalevska, I., Barabash, M.. and Snihur, V. 2018. Development of a research methodology and analysis of the stress state of a parting under the joint and downward mining of coal seams. Mining of Mineral Deposits, (12, Iss. 1). 76.
Krishnaswamy, K. N. 2016. Management Research Methodlogy: Integration of Principles, Medthods and Techniques. Pearson Education India.
Long, Q. 2016. A novel research methodology for supply network collaboration management. Information Sciences. 331. 67-85.
Mansell, W.. and Huddy, V. 2018. The assessment and modeling of perceptual control: a transformation in research methodology to address the replication crisis. Review of General Psychology. 22(3). 305-320.
McKelvie, S.. and Standing, L. G. 2018. Teaching psychology research methodology across the curriculum to promote undergraduate publication: an eight-course structure and two helpful practices. Frontiers in Psychology. 9. 2295.
McPhail, G.. and Lourie, M. 2017. Getting real: is realism a blind spot in research methodology?. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies. 52(2). 285-299.
Melnikovas, A. 2018. Towards an explicit research methodology: Adapting research onion model for futures studies. Journal of Futures Studies. 23(2). 29-44.
Phakiti, A. and et.al., 2018. The Palgrave handbook of applied linguistics research methodology. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sessler, D. I.. and Imrey, P. B. 2015. Clinical research methodology 3: randomized controlled trials. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 121(4). 1052-1064.
Sun, M.. and Lipsitz, S. R., 2018. Comparative effectiveness research methodology using secondary data: A starting user’s guide. In Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations (Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 174-182). Elsevier.
Thomson, R.. and McLeod, J. 2015. New frontiers in qualitative longitudinal research: An agenda for research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 18(3). 243-250.

Applied Research Skills

INTRODUCTION
In the present research report, varied aspects of research methodology are covered. In the report, purpose of observation method and advantage and disadvantage are explained in detail. Detail discussion is carried out on observer bias factor ways to minimize it are explained in the report (Mackey, Gass, 2015). Mechanisms that can be followed to administer online questionnaires are explained and principles of words are explained in the report. At end of the report, role that data collection from multiple sources plays in avoiding bias factor is also explained.
TASK 1
1. Describe the key purpose of observation, outlining advantages and disadvantages of this research approach to collecting data.
Observation is the one of the one of the most common approach of data collection and under this one commonly observes situation or sample units. The key purpose of observation is to collect more reliable data. This research approach is used when the researcher intends to identify what exactly sample units do as against they claim to do. In other words, it can be said that when researcher intend to collect sensitive info from the respondents and it thinks that they will not be honest in giving answer then in that researcher use this technique. In case one intend to view the behavior of sample units in the natural setting then in that case observation technique is used (Kumar, 2019). On the other hand, in case there is controlled situation and one want to develop comprehensive understanding about the individual’s behavior, then in that case also the observation method is used. In many cases, researcher’s suspect that reported data may be wrong and the reality is different and wrong answers are given by the respondent’s unintentionally then in that case also observation method is used by the researchers. Thus, it can be said that there are many purpose due to which observation technique is used by the researchers for data collection.
Advantages of using observation method for data collection
• One of the major advantages of the observation method is that it is the best technique that can be used to understand human behavior.
• Collected data is considered highly reliable in nature. This is because in this sample unit did not know many times that they are observed. Moreover, many times sample units know, but researcher did not make any interference in their work and due to this reason it is able to gather accurate data (Flick, 2015).
• For observation dependency on respondents comes to end. In order to do observation one just observes a specific number of individuals and did not need to collect data from a specific number of respondents.
• By making use of modern gadgets like CCTV camera and other machines observation can be done in a better way and more accurately. For a long time period more accurately observation can be done by the researcher (Fletcher, 2017).
• Observation is less demanding in nature and due to this reason less bias remains in the data collection process.
• By making use of modern gadgets like CCTV camera and other machines observation can be done in a better way and more accurately. For a long time period more accurately observation can be done by the researcher (Snyder, 2019).
Disadvantage of observation
• Problems that were in the past cannot be studied by using the observation method.
• For doing observation some tools are required whose cost remain high in the market and due to this reason it is very expensive to conduct observation in current time period (Zangirolami-Raimundo, Echeimberg, Leone, 2018).
• Opinion of individuals cannot be studied under this technique and one who is conducting researcher simply form its own opinion based on observation.
• It takes time to conduct observations. One has to wait for a time when the event will happen.
• By doing observation alone complete solution of the problem or complete info cannot be received by an individual (Humphries, 2017).


CONCLUSION
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that there are number of advantage and disadvantage of the observation method. Bias factor remains in the observation method which affects research results. In order avoid biases one must be self aware about its prejudice and desire. Apart from this, one must receive proper training. Technology advancement makes it easy to collect data for research. However, there are some issues in respect to administration of questionnaires that are placed online. In this regard, principles of words must be followed and proper instructions must be given to the respondents. Reliability and validity of results can be verified from multiple research works that collect data by adopting varied approaches and from multiple sources. Every data collection method has some bias factors and due to this reason data must be collected from multiple sources so as to ensure that data collected is bias free.

RESEARCH ESSAY

INTRODUCTION
In current time period there are a number of leadership styles and leaders, according to requirement and company culture follow the specific leadership style in the business. In many firms, high power distance culture can be seen. In a high power distance culture entire power remains in a few hands and they instruct subordinates. In case subordinate failed to perform a strict action is taken against it. Such kind of things negatively affect the workforce and due to this reason it become very important to identify appropriate leadership style so that company in which there is high power distance culture in better way leadership can be provided to the employees at the workplace. The chosen topic is very important because now a day’s handling a business becomes a very complex task. Days gone when superiors instruct subordinates and they follow it and remain entire life in a single company (Hu and Judge, 2017). Now a day’s, employees demand better working environment. They have a number of alternatives and if they did not find better working conditions they resign from the firm. Such kind of things directly affects company growth because it failed to develop a workforce that is highly skilled and efficient in its task. Thus, in the present research work is an attempt made to identify best leadership style that can be followed in the company which has high power distance culture. Focus in the report majorly is about transformational leadership style and slight attention is also paid on transactions leadership style. In the present research study, varied issues related to companies are identified that follow the high power distance culture. An attempt is made to identify ways in which transformational and transactional leadership styles can be adopted to handle these issues. Some of the common issues identified are that firms follow high power distance culture do not value their HR and impose instructions on them. Working conditions provided to the employees are also very poor. Lack of efficiency, cooperation, teamwork is some other issues that are discussed in respect to the negative sides of high power distance culture. There are number of entities which can be benefited from the research study (Inderyas and et.al., 2015). These entities are corporations, leaders and managers. This research study revealed the negative impact that adoption of high power distance culture has on the company. By reviewing the entire research work mentioned entities will come to know areas where they must work like HRM and organization culture etc to prevent harm that high power distance culture caused to the company. These entities will also come to know about ways in which transformational leadership and transformational leadership can help them to counter negative sides of higher power distance culture. Thus, it can be said that present research work will assist mentioned entities to improve business performance or managing management related issues in proper manner at the workplace. In the report each and every issue is addressed in proper manner and ways in which these leadership styles can assist firms is explained in detail.


Conclusion and recommendation
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that there are many companies that are adopting a high power distance culture. This culture is prominently seen in the companies that are operating and originate from specific nations like Russia, where power distance culture is very high. In the companies where the high power distance culture is adopted it can be seen that superiors instructor give orders to the subordinates and latter entity have to follow that order without making any question to superior (Petan and Bocarnea, 2016). Such kind of things negatively affects entire workforce motivation level. Moreover, employees feel frightened because if they make any mistake strict action will be taken against them.
In the essay issue discussed is the problems that companies face due to adoption of a high power distance culture in the business. Due to adoption of high power distance culture employees remain frightened, the firm failed to make effective use of HR in the business. Moreover, employees become less efficient due to poor working conditions. Employee’s intellectual capital and creativity also come to end because they have to perform tasks in the way their leader instruct them to do. Thus, with passage of time employees become addicted to receive order from leader to perform any task.
In the research sufficient study is done because specific issue multiple aspects that are given above are discussed in detail. Apart from this, ways in which adoption of transformational leadership and transactional leadership can assist firms to deal with these issues is also discussed in detail. Thus, it can be said that the research study scope is wide.
It is recommended that managers must follow the transformational leadership style in the high power culture. By giving opportunity to employees to participate in the decision making process, skill development and knowledge sharing their career development can be done and leader will also get highly intellectual and skilled subordinates (Jiang and et.al., 2015). This will assist one to give strong leadership to the employees at the workplace. The leader can also follow transactional leadership style and under this employees can be given reward if they perform well or vice verse. Such kind of things, will assist the leader to lead subordinates in a better way at the workplace by motivating them.


REFERENCE
Books and Journals
Appelbaum, N. P. and et.al., 2016. The effects of power, leadership and psychological safety on resident event reporting. Medical education. 50(3). 343-350.
Flatten, T., Adams, D.. and Brettel, M. 2015. Fostering absorptive capacity through leadership: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of World Business. 50(3). 519-534.
Gill., A. and et.al., 2010. The relationship between transformational leadership and employee desire for empowerment. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Hauff, S.. and Richter, N. 2015. Power distance and its moderating role in the relationship between situational job characteristics and job satisfaction. Cross Cultural Management.
Hu, J.. and Judge, T. A. 2017. Leader–team complementarity: Exploring the interactive effects of leader personality traits and team power distance values on team processes and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology. 102(6). 935.
Inderyas, S. and et.al., 2015. The moderating role of power distance on the relationship between leadership styles and employees job performance on public health care sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications.
Jiang, Y. and et.al., 2015. Involvement work systems and operational effectiveness: Exploring the moderating effect of national power distance. Journal of International Business Studies. 46(3). 332-354.
Kargas, A. D.. and Varoutas, D. 2015. On the relation between organizational culture and leadership: An empirical analysis. Cogent Business & Management. 2(1). 1055953.
Li, B.and et.al., 2015. Reassessing the role of Chinese workers in problem solving: a study of transformational leadership, trust and security in ‘lean’manufacturing. Asia Pacific Business Review. 21(4). 464-481.
Li, S. L. and et.al., 2015. When and why empowering leadership increases followers’ taking charge: A multilevel examination in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 32(3). 645-670.
Li, Y.. and Sun, J. M. 2015. Traditional Chinese leadership and employee voice behavior: A cross-level examination. The Leadership Quarterly. 26(2). 172-189.
Mulki, J. P., Caemmerer, B.. and Heggde, G. S. 2015. Leadership style, salesperson’s work effort and job performance: the influence of power distance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. 35(1). 3-22.
Park, C. K., 2015. Predicting employee engagement: An exploration of the roles of transformational leadership, power distance orientation, psychological collectivism, and psychological empowerment in Korean organizations
Petan, L.. and Bocarnea, M. 2016. Follower perceptions of authentic leadership: A comparison between respondents from Romania and the United States. Procedia-Social and behavioral sciences. 221. 142-150.
Schaubroeck, J. M., Shen, Y.. and Chong, S. 2017. A dual-stage moderated mediation model linking authoritarian leadership to follower outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology. 102(2). 203.
Singh, K., 2015. Leadership Style and Employee Productivity: A Case Study of Indian Banking Organizations. Journal of Knowledge Globalization. 8(2).
Ye, D., Ng, Y. K.. and Lian, Y. 2015. Culture and happiness. Social indicators research. 123(2). 519-547.
Online
White., S.K., 2018. [Online]. What is transformational leadership? A model for motivating innovation. Available through:< https://www.cio.com/article/3257184/what-is-transformational-leadership-a-model-for-motivating-innovation.html>.

Mini Research Project: Discuss about the selling strategy of Apple (IPhone Company)

Topic
The current research topic is chosen and whole research project would be conducted on such basis that is designed below:
“What is the selling strategy of Iphone to increase its sales of products?”
Introduction
Sales strategy of business is related to approach followed by the business to sell its products and position the company in the target market. Strategy in the business is concerned with following key direction and practice to attract the target market in differentiated manner (Balogun et.al. 2015). The research is based on analyzing the strategy followed by Apple in selling its products in the market that leads business to be competitive in the electronic market. The topic is being chosen as it would lead to develop effective understanding regarding the selling strategy of one of the renowned organization.

Conclusion
From the discussion is can be concluded that Apple follows the key strategy of offering high quality and innovative products in the market. Also products are being sold through the help of direct and indirect channels. And for selling the products, there are high qualifies and knowledgeable staff appointed in stores that provides the best of communication with the customers about product. Thus, application of methods and techniques develops understanding and helped to reach effective conclusion based on research topic chosen. Thus, this knowledge would be helpful in carrying out the future research projects.

References
Books and Journals
Balogun, J., Best, K. and Lê, J., 2015. Selling the object of strategy: How frontline workers realize strategy through their daily work. Organization Studies, 36(10), pp.1285-1313.
Khan, U.A., Alam, M.N. and Alam, S., 2015. A critical analysis of internal and external environment of Apple Inc. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(6), pp.955-961.
Lee, M.S. and Soon, I., 2017. Taking a bite out of Apple: Jailbreaking and the confluence of brand loyalty, consumer resistance and the co-creation of value. Journal of Product & Brand Management.
Yu, M., Kapuscinski, R. and Ahn, H.S., 2015. Advance selling: Effects of interdependent consumer valuations and seller’s capacity. Management Science, 61(9), pp.2100-2117.
Online
Four Week MBA, (2019) Apple Distribution: The Apple Store Is Not about selling iPhone Available on [Accessed on 19th April, 2020]
Neil Patel, (2019) Strategies of Apple’s Marketing Available on [Accessed on 19th April, 2020]
The Mac observer, (2018) Apple Brand Recognition Beats Other Tech Companies, Available on [Accessed on 19th April, 2020]
The Daily Egg, 2017 Why is Apple’s Marketing Just So Darn Good? < https://www.crazyegg.com/blog/why-is-apples-marketing-good/> [Accessed on 19th April, 2020]
The Startup, (2020) what is Apple’s strategy? Available on [Accessed on 19th April, 2020]

RESEARCH PROJECT on Counterfeit Products over original products on Moschino

Introduction
Background
Present research study is carried out on counterfeit products and their impact on luxury fashion brand companies operating in India. It is seen from few years in India that counterfeit product use becomes common among people. Many firms claim that availability of the counterfeit product is the main reason behind decline in revenue in their business. There are number of reasons due to which people buy counterfeit products like they believe in show off in the society and do not have high income due to which they cannot buy luxury fashion brand products. Changes that are taking place at fast pace in the fashion industry and change in people taste may be another reason behind decline in sales of luxury brands in India. Thus, it is necessary to identify that do really counterfeit products are affecting luxury brand revenue in India or it is just assumption or excuse. In the present research study attempt is made to identify the reasons or factors that motivate individual to buy counterfeit products and impact it have on company revenue. In this regard appropriate tool and techniques will be used to conduct research study.
Rationale
It was necessary to conduct this research study because many luxury fashion brands claimed that counterfeit products in the market are main reason behind decline in company revenue. In year 2016 counterfeit goods valued at USD 509 billion worldwide. In India counterfeit products cause over 1 lakh crore of loss annually to the branded companies. In EU nations counterfeit products represent 6.8% of imports and in non EU nations it covers 5% of total imports. Thus, it is necessary to identify whether assumption made by the firms or their belief is accurate. Whether counterfeit products in market lead to sharp decline in company revenue or are there is other reason behind low earning in the business. If counterfeit product is main reason behind decline in revenue then what are the factors that motivate individual to buy counterfeit products?
Research aim
To find out factors motivating youngsters to buy counterfeit of luxury fashion brand and its impact of Love Moschino revenue by doing thematic analysis approach and identifying actions firm must take to reduce its impact on revenue.
Research question
What impact availability of counterfeit luxury fashion is having on the consumer behavior of the people and sort of steps can be taken to elevate revenue?
Objectives
• To do an extensive literature review and by analyzing relevant research studies identify people’s perception about use of counterfeit products and its impact on company revenue.
• To identify factors motivating people to buy counterfeit luxury fashion products by using thematic analysis approach.
• To identify people perception about impact of demand of counterfeit products on Love Moschino revenue by using thematic analysis approach.
• To form recommendation based on research study which will indicate course of action firm must follow to reduce demand of counterfeit products in the market and increase revenue.

Limitation
Small sample size is taken and it is a major limitation of the research. However, it will be ensured that those who have good knowledge in respect to research topic are only taken as sample units in the present research (Mitchell, Close, and Li, 2016. By doing so it will be ascertained that data gathered during research process are completely reliable.

REFERENCES
Books and journals
Abdullah, Q.A. and Yu, J., 2019. Attitudes and Purchase Intention towards Counterfeiting Luxurious Fashion Products among Yemeni Students in China. American Journal of Economics. 9(2). pp.53-64.
André, L.R., THEBAULT, M. and ROY, Y., 2019. Do product category and consumers’ motivations profiles matter regarding counterfeiting? Journal of Product and Brand Management, May 2019. Journal of Product and Brand Management.
Bajwa, S. and Singh, S., 2019. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND CONSUMER PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS COUNTERFEIT COSMETIC BRANDS. PIMT. p.83.
Bian, X. and Veloutsou, C., 2017. Consumers’ attitudes regarding non-deceptive counterfeit brands in the UK and China. In Advances in Chinese Brand Management (pp. 331-350). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Bian, X., Haque, S. and Smith, A., 2015. Social power, product conspicuousness, and the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products. British Journal of Social Psychology. 54(1). pp.37-54.

Business Research plan

INTRODUCTION
Value system matter a lot for the company. Varied values collectively form a common corporate culture. It can be said that it is the corporate values that collectively shape a corporate culture. Corporate culture has certainly an impact on the business strategy. It means that it can be said that from the present study point of view that corporate culture has a direct impact on the marketing strategy of the company. It is the corporate values that are taken into account to create purpose improve team cohesion and create a sense of commitment at the workplace (Brettel, Chomik, and Flatten, 2015). Values are actually the company DNA and they differentiate business from the rivals. Corporate values have direct impact on the corporate decisions. 50% of CEO’S in today time period believe that corporate culture influenced productivity, creativity, profitability and firm value and growth rates. Core values totally have impact on all business operations. An organization where corporate culture is so strong, effective marketing is seen. Often large companies are created with specific aim or to meet specific needs of the people. Those firms that focus on customer’s pain point often do effective marketing. This is because employees of these firms follow company value system and identify needs and pain point of the customer and accordingly serve product to the people. Such kind of approach leads to effective marketing in the business. Such kind of companies always gives importance to the customers and to serve them in the best way these firms focused on retaining employees in the business. More companies will have experienced personnel it will be able to serve customers in a better way. In order to retain employees these firms focused more on developing good relationship with the employees (Elsbach, and Stigliani, 2018). These firms provide a supportive environment to the employees so that trustworthy relationship can be developed between the company and employees. In the research study there are multiple sections like introduction, literature review, and research methodology. Aim and objectives are also included in the report. Considering aim and objectives of the research it can be said that the scope of the research is wide.
Literature review
Relationship between corporate culture and marketing effectiveness
According to Hock, Clauss, and Schulz, 2016 corporate culture has huge impact on the marketing effectiveness. It can be observed that accountability factor is seen in the corporate culture of the most of the large corporations. In case of large companies accountability is given to all sorts of the employees, whether they are on top, middle or lower position in the business. In case sales force failed to achieve its target, then in that case their managers are accountable to the top managers. Thus, managers that manage sales force always guide sales force members to the maximum possible extent. This lead to effective marketing in the business.
As per views of Ahern, Daminelli, and Fracassi, 2015 sales managers in large corporations are accountable for the sales team performance. Sales managers often understand market conditions and accordingly guide their team members in the achievement of the target. Thus, with changes in market conditions, they also change the way of doing marketing. Hence, it can be said that corporate culture has a direct impact on the market and it make marketing results effective in nature. Due to accountability factor managers take charge and make maximum attempt to make sure that their team achieves target and face less problem in achieving it. Such kind of culture makes organization culture very effective and lead to effective marketing operations in the business.
Beugelsdijk, Kostova, and Roth, 2017 state that learning is a very important part of the many company culture. These companies believed that learning is very important for the company growth and for the satisfaction of needs of the customers. Firms that do social media marketing often conduct multiple experiments. Due to conducting multiple experiments they learn a lot from the success and failures. This learning assists them to do effective marketing at online channels of the marketing. Learning from failures assist firms to understand varied business in a better way. Better understanding assists social media marketing agencies to identify the relevant target audience for each client. Thus, due to learning factor these agencies are able to do effectively marketing for all their clients. Hence, it can be said that learning factor directly affect marketing efforts of the firm.
Yanagisako, 2020 states that many firms like Virgin group give more priority to the passion of the individual than its degree and work experience. This is because if one is passionate about something, then in that case it can perform better for the business firm. If one is passionate about something it will certainly have a specific sort of skills and can give exceptional performance at the workplace. Thus, many firms take due care while selecting employees for their marketing team. If firm select employees with relevant personality and passion then in that case marketing efforts are performed in better way in the business.
Eisenbeiss, Van Knippenberg, and Fahrbach, 2015 state that leadership is also one of the most important parts of the any firm culture. Many companies, for the leadership positions like management position follow the career progression plan. Under this specific individuals are identified that have relevant skills set and can lead teams in a better way. Firms identify those individuals and give proper training to them and when manager position becomes vacant appoint that individual that seems to be a perfect leader. The same is done across all departments and in marketing department also and due to this reason it can be said that marketing activities are performed in an effective manner.


Personal reflection
In the present research study, varied sections are prepared like introduction, literature review and research methodology. In the introduction section focus is mainly on the organization cultural values and their impact on the relationship that exist between employees and the company. Moreover, the impact of the cultural values on the marketing effectiveness is also explained in the report. Thus, basically I make an attempt to show the significance of the cultural values for the firms. In respect to these aims and objectives are prepared in the report. The aim of the research study is “To identify the role that corporate values play in increasing employee engagement and making marketing efforts more effective”. On other hand objective is to identify the relationship between corporate culture and marketing effectiveness. Focus is also on identifying impacts of corporate culture on company and employee relationship. Apart from this, focus is also on identifying role corporate culture play in employee retention in marketing segment. Considering, all objective literature review section is classified into the multiple parts. In this regard, last 5 years articles and journals are reviewed in detail. I personally visit varied libraries and internet based resources and from multiple journals I choose specific articles that are more closely related to the research subject. Thus, it can be said that I took a lot of time to conduct a literature review. Apart from this, the research methodology section is also prepared in the report. In the research methodology section, varied segments are prepared like research approach, research philosophy, data collection, data analysis, research type. Apart from this, varied other sections are prepared like to sample, accessibility and ethical values. In the research study my aim was not to prove anything but aim was to identify whether specific relationship exist between variables. Thus, this was taken as a base to select a specific research approach, research philosophy and research type. Considering target to identify relationship I choose an inductive research approach and Interpretivism research philosophy in the present research study. I choose to conduct both primary and secondary research in the present research study. There was reason behind this. While conducting research it is very important to develop broad understanding about the research topic and due to this reason I do secondary research. Secondary research will assist me to conduct primary research in better way. I choose to make use of thematic analysis methods to analyze data. This is because the present research study is not scientific in nature and I want to identify patterns in order to reach to the specific conclusion.
REFERENCES
Books and Journals
Ahern, K. R., Daminelli, D.. and Fracassi, C. 2015. Lost in translation? The effect of cultural values on mergers around the world. Journal of Financial Economics. 117(1). 165-189.
Bahoo, S., Alon, I.. and Paltrinieri, A. 2020. Corruption in international business: A review and research agenda. International Business Review. 29(4). 101660.
Beugelsdijk, S. and et.al, 2018. Cultural distance and firm internationalization: A meta-analytical review and theoretical implications. Journal of Management. 44(1). 89-130.
Beugelsdijk, S., Kostova, T.. and Roth, K. 2017. An overview of Hofstede-inspired country-level culture research in international business since 2006. Journal of International Business Studies. 48(1). 30-47.
Brettel, M., Chomik, C. and Flatten, T. C., 2015. How organizational culture influences innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk‐taking: Fostering entrepreneurial orientation in SMEs. Journal of small business management. 53(4). 868-885.
Chen, Y. and et.al, 2015. National culture and corporate cash holdings around the world. Journal of Banking & Finance. 50. 1-18.
Du, M.. and Boateng, A. 2015. State ownership, institutional effects and value creation in cross-border mergers & acquisitions by Chinese firms. International Business Review. 24(3). 430-442.
Eisenbeiss, S. A., Van Knippenberg, D.. and Fahrbach, C. M. 2015. Doing well by doing good? Analyzing the relationship between CEO ethical leadership and firm performance. Journal of Business Ethics. 128(3). 635-651.
Elsbach, K. D. and Stigliani, I., 2018. Design thinking and organizational culture: A review and framework for future research. Journal of Management. 44(6). 2274-2306.
Engelen, A. and et.al., 2015. Entrepreneurial orientation, firm performance, and the moderating role of transformational leadership behaviors. Journal of management. 41(4). 1069-1097.
Flatten, T., Adams, D.. and Brettel, M. 2015. Fostering absorptive capacity through leadership: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of World Business. 50(3). 519-534.
Gear, C., Eppel, E.. and Koziol-Mclain, J. 2018. Advancing complexity theory as a qualitative research methodology. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 17(1). 1609406918782557.
Gura, D. A., Shevchenko, G. G.. and Gura, A. Y. 2016. Development research methodology elastic deformation total station. Journal of engineering and Applied Sciences. 11(13). 2885-2888.
Guthrie, G. 2015. Culturally grounded pedagogy and research methodology. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. 45(1). 163-168.
Hadi, M. A.. and Closs, S. J. 2016. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy. International journal of clinical pharmacy. 38(3) 641-646.
Hock, M., Clauss, T.. and Schulz, E. 2016. The impact of organizational culture on a firm’s capability to innovate the business model. R&d Management. 46(3). 433-450.
Husted, B. W., Allen, D. B.. and Kock, N. 2015. Value creation through social strategy. Business & Society. 54(2). 147-186.
Kao, H. Y. and et.al., 2016. Design and evaluation of hospital-based business intelligence system (HBIS): A foundation for design science research methodology. Computers in Human Behavior. 62. 495-505.
Meredith, S. J. and et.al., 2018. A review of behavioural measures and research methodology in sport and exercise psychology. International review of sport and exercise psychology. 11(1). 25-46.
Opoku, A., Ahmed, V.. and Akotia, J. 2016. Choosing appropriate research methodology and methods. Research methodology in the built environment: A selection of case studies, London: Routledge. 32-49.
Sasaki, I., Ravasi, D.. and Micelotta, E. 2019. Family firms as institutions: Cultural reproduction and status maintenance among multi-centenary shinise in Kyoto. Organization Studies. 40(6). 793-831.
Sunderland, N. and et.al., 2015. 1000 Voices: Reflective online multimodal narrative inquiry as a research methodology for disability research. Qualitative Social Work. 14(1). 48-64.
Thompkins, A. M. and et.al, 2016. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the domestic dog: Research, methodology, and conceptual issues. Comparative cognition & behavior reviews. 11. 63.
Worthington, D. L.. and Bodie, G. D., 2017. The sourcebook of listening research: Methodology and measures. John Wiley & Sons.
Yanagisako, S. J. 2020. Producing culture and capital: Family firms in Italy. Princeton University Press.

Business Research Plan

INTRODUCTION
In the 21st century, it becomes very hard task for the firms generate sales and innovate product in the business. Competition is very tough in the current time period and due to this reasons firm in different ways to promote their products. Social media emerged as a most popular tool to do the marketing of the product. However, there are many companies who spend large amounts of money on social media channels but did not get desired results. On other hand, there are firms like Volt, Hubble contacts which achieve huge success on social media marketing (Kim, Lim, and Brymer, 2015). Thus, it is very important to identify whether social media prove effective for the firm in terms of marketing of the products. This is also aimed of the present research study. On the other hand, objective is to identify the impact of influence marketing that is done on the social media on the business firms. Moreover, the objective is also to find out the extent to which social media prove an effective tool for developing brand awareness relative to traditional media channels. The third objective is to identify the significance of the social media for the firms to understand their customer base in a proper manner. In the present research study focus is on identifying the reasons behind the success or failure of the social media in assisting firms to do effective marketing. Considering this multiple objectives are prepared in the research study. In the research study there are multiple sections like introduction, literature review and research methodology. Considering objectives deeply literatures will be reviewed in the research study. Moreover, considering the objective, whether it is to form a theory or to prove any assumption varied things in the research methodology section will be determined. In this way, present research study will be carried out.
Literature review
Impact of influencer marketing that is done on social media on making marketing campaign effective
According to (Nawaz, and et.al., 2017) influencer marketing becomes very effective for the business firms. Influencer marketing can be basically defined as the relationship that exists between brand and influence. Influences are basically those individuals that work in the specific industry or have deep knowledge of the specific product line. These influences have a good, credible image among people and due to this reason people believe in them and their advice to great extend. In case firms advertise product without influences it takes time to develop brand awareness and interest among people. On the other hand, if influences are doing marketing for the firm, then in that case brand awareness and interest originate among people at a fast pace. Thus, it can be said that influence marketing prove very effective for the firms.
On the other hand, (Hu, and et.al., 2020) state that influence marketing always did not prove very effective for the firms. This is because there are many companies that take the assistance of the celebrities to do influencer marketing. People often believe that celebrity that is actor in real life just endorse the product and did not know much about the product it advertise. Hence, in such kind of situation individuals did not trust advertisement and influence and marketing efforts prove ineffective. Thus, influencer marketing may failed to generate better results for the product sometimes.
However (Johnen,. and Schnittka, 2019) state that celebrities also proves very effective in the influencer marketing. This is because there are large numbers of people that remain curious about the life of the celebrities. Considering, their lifestyle individuals prefer to make use of the products in their personal life. Hence, if any product is endorsed by any celebrity, then it certainly elevates demand of the product in the market. This is the reason due to which many companies like to do celebrity endorsement in the influencer marketing.
As per views of (Kim, and Song, 2018) influencers independently create their own content and integrate company advertisement specifications on it. It means that influencers according to their knowledge form a content considering USP of the firm product. This makes the advertisement authentic and due to this reason, individuals believe in whatever influences state in the social media advertisement. Companies like Hubble contacts are making use of influence on large scale to do marketing of their products in effective way.
(Välimäki, and et.al., 2016) state that 80% of marketers find influencer marketing very effective. Collaboration with the influences assists companies to develop a content that seems different, attractive and very informative to the people. Influences are able to develop content in such a way that resonates with the target groups in a better way. Thus, this is the reason due to which memory retention value of the content that is developed by the influence is very high in the market.


Personal reflection
In the current research topic is related to the social media marketing. I am a specially enthusiast about ways in which social media generate excellent results for the many business firms. Thus, I choose a topic related to social media marketing in order to identify why social media is so effective in generating results for the business firm. In this regard, I planned to focus on influencer marketing because many firms through this sort of marketing get huge success on social media. Further, I focus on ways in which social media assist firms to understand their customers. In this regard, specific attention I paid on the processor approaches that firms follow to identify the best persona or target group for them. In the LR due to this reason I talked about the AB test approach and approach under which multiple variants of landing and subscribe page are prepared. These approaches to assist firms to understand their customers in proper manner. Thus, it can be said that I mainly focus on the specific approach of social media marketing (Influencer marketing) and the ways in which it assist firms to understand their customers in better way in the business. Considering these objectives literatures are identified and reviewed in detail so that broad understanding can be developed on the research subject. Further, the research methodology section is also prepared in the report. In the research methodology section inductive research approach and Interpretivism philosophy is selected. This is because in the research study attention is paid on the development of theory, not on proving a specific theory. Thus, the accordingly thematic analysis approach is selected in the research study to analyze data. By using thematic analysis approach sentiments of the sample units will be analyzed in proper manner. For each category number of respondents will be found out and it will be identified whether respondents give mixed response or they give a response in the particular direction. By doing so pattern will be identified and sentiments of the sample units will be measured in the proper manner. Hence, it can be said that appropriate method is selected for the research purpose. Two months time I will take to conduct research. I think that it will be better to take more time as much as possible to conduct research. This is because if I will rush to conduct research in the short time period, then I will not be able to conduct a literature review in a proper manner. Means that in order to conduct research in the short time period I will review very few literatures and this may affect research work quality. Apart from this, if I will rush to conduct primary research in the short duration, then in that case will not be able to pick sample units from population in a proper manner. This may also affect research results. Thus, it can be said that appropriate actions are taken to ensure that accurate results will be achieved and every attempt is made to conduct research in a proper manner. In order to ensure that no ethics are breached true identity will be revealed and aim as well as objectives will also be communicated in proper manner to the sample units during research.

REFERENCE
Books and Journals
Antwi, S. K.. and Hamza, K. 2015. Qualitative and quantitative research paradigms in business research: A philosophical reflection. European journal of business and management. 7(3). 217-225.
Chong, A. Y. L. and et.al., 2018. The role of social media in enhancing guanxi and perceived effectiveness of E-commerce institutional mechanisms in online marketplace. Information & management. 55(5). 621-632.
Daniel, B. K.. and Harland, T. 2017. Higher education research methodology: A step-by-step guide to the research process. Routledge.
Daniel, B., Kumar, V.. and Omar, N. 2018. Postgraduate conception of research methodology: implications for learning and teaching. International Journal of Research & Method in Education. 41(2). 220-236.
Datta, R. 2018. Traditional storytelling: an effective Indigenous research methodology and its implications for environmental research. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples. 14(1). 35-44.
Dehghani, M.. and Tumer, M. 2015. A research on effectiveness of Facebook advertising on enhancing purchase intention of consumers. Computers in Human Behavior. 49. 597-600.
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What is Influencer Marketing: An in Depth Look at Marketing’s Next Big Thing., 2020. [Online]. Available through:< https://influencermarketinghub.com/what-is-influencer-marketing/>.

BUSINESS RESEARCH PLAN

Introduction
Research topic
The research is proposed to determine “Role that supply chain play in reducing costs for automobile manufacturers”.
Background
During financial crisis European and USA automobile manufacturers saw a decline in the sale of their cars. At the same time, Chinese Automobile manufacturers’ business grows at a fast pace. Chinese firms were able to produce cars at cheaper rates than rivals. This for the first time attracts attention of the entire world towards Chinese automobile industry (Kerswell and Pratap, 2015). There are a number of areas on which firms work to control costs in their business. Like many firms innovate their technology and control production cost. Some companies reduce complexity of business operations and simplify it and generate economies of scale in the business (Bhanot, Rao and Deshmukh,. 2016). So, basically there are many areas by working on which cost saving is done by the business firms.
The supply chain is the one of the important areas on which many companies are focusing for cost cutting and control (Supply chain., 2020). Those firms that are operating globally like Uniliver are using analytics and BI technology to review their operations and reduce supply chain cost. These firms by using such kind of technology identify short routes for transportation, place order for raw material only in required quantity and keep track of delivery time etc (Shivajee, Singh and Rastogi, 2019). Availability of data assist firm to optimize its business operations and this lead to reduction in cost in the supply chain.
Present research study is focused on role that supply chain plays in assisting firms to cut down the production cost of the business. The research work will focus on identifying extent to which use of approaches like EOQ, JIT, IT infrastructure lead to reduction of cost in the business Lot more is said about these approaches in respect to cost control (Traub-Merz, 2017). In this study by using the suitable data analysis method in depth analysis of the effectiveness of these techniques will be done.


Evaluation of the research proposal
Evaluation of aims: In current time period most of business firms are focusing on developing cost leadership so that more market can be captured and loyal customer base can be developed. In order to do cost cutting multiple areas is there on which varied companies operate. To make research topic more specific and to do study at granular level focus is on supply chain management and its role in assisting firms to control cost in the business. Supply chain is vast in size and to great extent contributes to total cost that firm bear in its business. This is the reason due to which supply chain is major focus point. In present research focus is on automobile sector under which companies sold their vehicles globally and have global supply chain. Such kinds of firms have complex supply chain which sometimes leads to elevation in cost of the business. Because focus is on automobile sector attention is specifically paid on SCM and its role in cost control in automobile business. It can be said that aim is more specifically prepared in the research report.
Evaluation of objectives: On evaluation of objectives it can be seen that focus is on transport routes, EOQ, JIT and IT infra. Firms commonly operate in automobile sector make use of these old concepts and new technology to manage their supply chain related operations. Thus, focus is on these four to identify whether by using these four, supply chain operations are managed efficiently by the business which leads to cost control or reduction in the business. It can be said that objectives are prepared accurately in the business.
Evaluation of literature review section: In the LR section supporting and contrasting facts are given in respect to EOQ, JIT and BI technology by critically discussing their positive and negative points. By doing so attempt is made to develop broad understanding about significance of these approaches in supply chain management.
Evaluation of RM section: In RM section considering sort of results that intend to be obtained from the research study interpretivism philosophy and inductive approach is selected. Main aim is to develop a theory based on data analysis not to test a theory and due to this reason above mentioned philosophy and approach are taken into account.

REFEENCES
Books and journals
Agariya, A. K.. and Singh, D. 2016. SRM index development and validation in Indian automobile sector. IJBPSCM. 8(1). 1-26.
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Bhanot, N., Rao, P. V.. and Deshmukh, S. G. 2016. An assessment of sustainability for turning process in an automobile firm. Procedia CIRP. 48. 538-543.
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Mabkhot, H. A., Salleh, S. M.. and Shaari, H. 2016. The antecedents of automobile brand loyalty: Evidence from Malaysian. International Review of Management and Marketing. 6(3). 596-602.
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Maheshwari, P., Seth, N.. and Gupta, A. K. 2017. Drivers of product visibility in Indian automobile sector: an interpretive structural modelling-based approach. International Journal of Logistics Economics and Globalisation. 6(4). 273-296.
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Pheng, L. S.. and Meng, C. Y. 2018. Managing productivity in construction: JIT operations and measurements. Routledge.
Prajapati, D. R. 2016. Inventory Analysis of a Manufacturing Industry through EOQ Model: A Case study. International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering. 6(8). 294-311.
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Shaikh, A. A. and et.al., 2019. Price discount facility in an EOQ model for deteriorating items with stock‐dependent demand and partial backlogging. International Transactions in Operational Research. 26(4). 1365-1395.
Shivajee, V., Singh, R. K.. and Rastogi, S., 2019. Manufacturing conversion cost reduction using quality control tools and digitization of real-time data. Journal of Cleaner Production. 237. 117678.
Tewari, D., Singh, A.. and Tewari, P. C. 2016. Ranking of performance indicators in jit-based production system for manufacturing industries. IUP Journal of Operations Management. 15(1). 25.
Traub-Merz, R. 2017. The Automotive Sector in Russia. The Automotive Sector in Emerging Economies: Industrial Policies, Market Dynamics and Trade Union. 127.
Tyagi, M.. and Tewari, P. C. (2019). Ranking of Performance Indicators in JIT-Based Manufacturing Systems Using TOPSIS. IUP Journal of Operations Management. 18(4).
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Online
Supply chain., 2020. [Online]. Available through:< https://www.acea.be/industry-topics/tag/category/supply-chain>.

Business Research Plan

INTRODUCTION
Social media channels in the past few years, emerging as one of the most important tools of the marketing for the business firms. On social media channel business firms regularly place their posts and individuals comment on it and give likes and dislikes. Many firms do aggressive marketing and even they generate sales solely from the social media channels. Firms like Hubble contacts, Blue Apron etc. consistently generate customers through social media platforms. For these companies social media is the tool to approach people and create customers. These firms did not follow Brick and Mortar model in their business. Thus, through social media channels they not only promote their products but also create customers. Thus, the question arises that why social media channels have such a big power to influence individuals buying decisions (Thomson, and McLeod, 2015). The present research study will focus on this point. In this regard, aim and objectives are prepared. The research study will focus on identifying the role of engagement in influencing purchase decisions of the individuals. The research study will also investigate influence promotions and offers that are seen on social media on individual purchase decisions. Further, the focus will be on influencer marketing and its impact on individual purchase decisions. In the report, multiple sections are prepared like introduction, literature review, research methodology. Finally at end, reflective statement is prepared in the report.
MAIN BODY
Literature review
Engagement on social media and its impact on buying decisions
According to Duffett Mr, and Wakeham Dr, 2016 engagement that happened on social media channels influence the individuals buying decisions. This is because when people engaged on specific post, then they share their experiences. Experience may be good or bad. In both cases an individual purchase decisions are affected. If majority of comments are positive, then it motivates people to make purchases. On the other hand, if the comments are negative, then in that case one abstains from purchasing company product.
Felix, Rauschnabel, and Hinsch, 2017 also stated that many times individuals visit company page and check varied customers grievances and solutions that firms provide. In case one is going to purchase an electronic item, then in that case it will surely visit varied companies social media pages and will search about after sales service that firms provide to the customers on their grievance. In case individual identified that firm response is not good and many customers are dissatisfied then it will not prefer to take the product of the company. Hence, it can be said that engagement that is seen in the form of individual’s comments and firm response to large extent create image of the firm among the customers. Considering such kind of engaging individuals takes purchase decisions.
Contrary to this Spiller, and Tuten, 2015 state that it is true that individuals visit social sites to know more about the company, product and services and customer’s opinion but they did not give much importance to the engagement that is seen on social media channels. This is because on social sites few one place their comments which include both positive and negative. Individuals give more priority to the word of mouth marketing. They collect info about product and company services from the friends, relatives and acquaintances. They believe more on info received from the friends and relatives than those received from social media channels. Hence, it can be said that social media channels did not have much influence on individual purchase decisions.
Yang, and Wang, 2015 also support above given fact and its state that individual make use of the content they see on social media platform and info received from friends as well as relatives to make final decisions. Individuals visit social sites just to get a brief overview of customers’ experience. This to some extent give direction to the perception that individual will form about the product. On the other hand, if an individual receives positive info from the friends and relative and receive negative info from the social site then they form a positive image about the product. There is higher reliability of friends and relatives experience about the product then comments that are on social media channels.

Evaluation of individual research plan
In the research report multiple sections are prepared namely introduction, literature review, research methodology, aim and objectives. In the introduction brief discussion is done on the social media effectiveness in influencing individual purchase decisions. Varied success stories of marketing on social media platform like Facebook are explained briefly. By doing so attempt is made to show that social media channels prove effective for the firms in terms of influencing individuals purchase decisions. Further aim and objectives are prepared in the report. The main aim is to find out whether social media assist firms in influencing individual purchase decisions. Thus, the objectives are prepared to prove this statement. Under this focus is on identifying impact that engagement that is seen on the Facebook and other social sites has on individual purchase decisions. Moreover, attention is also paid on the impact discount ad and offers that are seen on social media have on the individuals purchase decisions. Further, impact of influence marketing is also identified. Many individuals like to use products that are suggested by the experts. Hence, due to this reason influencer marketing that is done on the Facebook and other social media platforms is also taken into account to measure effectiveness of the social media marketing tool in influencing purchase decisions of the individuals. Thus, it can be said that the scope of the research study is wide and very specific and by focusing on multiple points it will be easy to identify the effectiveness of the social media channels in influencing individuals purchase decisions.
In order to conduct literature review section varied literatures are reviewed that are published in last 5 years. An attempt is made to collect most recent articles but none of the article taken into account is more than 5 years old. The entire literature review section is classified into the multiple parts considering objective of the research. Such kind of classification is made so that one on reading heading clearly understands that on which topic literature review is based. Further, the research methodology section is prepared in the report. In this section sort of research philosophy and approach taken into account is explained in detail. In the report, considering the research requirement inductive research approach and Interpretivism research philosophy is taken into account. This is done because in the present research study main aim has been to just find out whether social media has an influence on individual purchase decisions. Here, main aim is not to prove a statement or assumption that social media has an influence on the individual purchase decisions. Thus, due to this reason the inductive research approach is selected and Interpretivism research philosophy is chosen in the present research study.
Considering, corona factor small sample size is taken in the research study. But to ensure that data collected is accurate questionnaire will only be distributed among those individuals that have good knowledge in respect to the research topic.

REFERENCE
Books and Journals
Alalwan, A. A. and et.al., 2016. A systematic review of extant literature in social media in the marketing perspective. In Conference on e-Business, e-Services and e-Society (pp. 79-89). Springer, Cham.
Alavi, M. and et.al., 2018. Aligning theory and methodology in mixed methods research: Before Design Theoretical Placement. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 21(5). 527-540.
Almalki, S. 2016. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research–Challenges and Benefits. Journal of education and learning. 5(3). 288-296.
Duffett Mr, R. G.. and Wakeham Dr, M. 2016. Social media marketing communications effect on attitudes among millennials in South Africa. The African Journal of Information Systems. 8(3). 2.
Felix, R., Rauschnabel, P. A.. and Hinsch, C. 2017. Elements of strategic social media marketing: A holistic framework. Journal of Business Research. 70. 118-126.
Hoddy, E. T. 2019. Critical realism in empirical research: employing techniques from grounded theory methodology. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 22(1). 111-124.
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Iankova, S. and et.al., 2019. A comparison of social media marketing between B2B, B2C and mixed business models. Industrial Marketing Management. 81. 169-179.
Icha, O.. and Agwu, P. E. 2015. Effectiveness of social media networks as a strategic tool for organizational marketing management. J Internet Bank Commer. S2.
Kim, W. G., Lim, H.. and Brymer, R. A. 2015. The effectiveness of managing social media on hotel performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 44. 165-171.
Lee, S. 2015. Systems biology-a pivotal research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. Journal of pharmacopuncture. 18(3). 11.
Leung, X. Y., Bai, B.. and Stahura, K. A. 2015. The marketing effectiveness of social media in the hotel industry: A comparison of Facebook and Twitter. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 39(2). 147-169.
Mayer, I. 2015. Qualitative research with a focus on qualitative data analysis. International Journal of Sales, Retailing & Marketing. 4(9). 53-67.
Ong, Y. X.. and Ito, N. 2019. “I want to go there too!” Evaluating social media influencer marketing effectiveness: a case study of Hokkaido’s DMO. In Information and communication technologies in tourism 2019 (pp. 132-144). Springer, Cham.
Safiullah, M. and et.al., 2017. Social media as an upcoming tool for political marketing effectiveness. Asia Pacific Management Review. 22(1). 10-15.
Semerádová, T.. and Weinlich, P. 2019. Calculation of Facebook marketing effectiveness in terms of ROI. In Leveraging Computer-Mediated Marketing Environments (pp. 286-310). IGI Global.
Sharma, S.. and Verma, H. V. 2018. Social media marketing: Evolution and change. In Social Media Marketing (pp. 19-36). Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore.
Spiller, L.. and Tuten, T. 2015. Integrating metrics across the marketing curriculum: The digital and social media opportunity. Journal of Marketing Educatio. 37(2). 114-126.
Thomson, R.. and McLeod, J. 2015. New frontiers in qualitative longitudinal research: An agenda for research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 18(3). 243-250.
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Yang, X.. and Wang, D. 2015. The exploration of social media marketing strategies of destination marketing organizations in China. Journal of China Tourism Research. 11(2). 166-185.
Yasmin, A., Tasneem, S.. and Fatema, K. 2015. Effectiveness of digital marketing in the challenging age: An empirical study. International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration. 1(5). 69-80.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Introduction
Research topic
The research is proposed to determine “Impact or influence of social media on buying behavior of individual”.
Background
In the 21st century innovation is happening at a rapid pace across the industries. In advertisement industry also innovation happened and on a large scale. Social media advertisement completely changes the face of the industry (How does social media influence consumer behavior?., 2020). The days were when products were only advertised through TV channels and print media. In the past couple of years social media emerged as a new medium of communication. Many brands like Hubble, Blue Apron, Vault and PureGym achieve huge success in the market by advertising their products through social media channels like Facebook (Alalwan and et.al., 2017). On the other hand, there are many brands that failed to achieve desired results. Thus, a major question arises or research problem is that do actually social media channels assist firms to persuade customers If yes, then what are those factors due to which social media help firms to achieve desired results?. In the past many research studies are conducted in this regard and attempts were made to measure the effectiveness of the social media. Those research studies basically evaluate the marketing strategies of the firm that were implemented on social media channels to persuade customers. These research studies also focus on varied formats, advertisement through which assist firm to do the marketing of the product on social media in a better way. Opposite to this, the present study is focused on the impact of influencers and opinion people shared on social media, promotion and brand awareness done on by the firm on individual buying behavior. Thus, this study focuses on basic factors or reasons due to which social media help firms to persuade customers in an easy way. This is the main significance of the research work.
Research aim
To identify impact or influence of social media on buying behavior of individual.
Objectives
• To identify the role of social media in creating awareness among people about the product and motivating them to buy company product.
• To identify the impact of opinion or comments that people share on social media on individual buying decisions.
• To identify the impact of promotion, discounts and deals that are advertised by the firms on social media on people purchasing decisions.
• To identify the impact that influences opinion about product on social media have on individual purchase decisions.
• To recommend strategies that form must follow to make a social media campaign successful.

Evaluation of the research proposal
• Evaluation of aim: The aim of the research study is to identify the impact that social media have on the individual buying behavior. There are a number of ways in which social media affects individual buying behavior. In the current time period large number of firms are using social media to advertise their products, but they got failed or does not get expected results. Considering this fact, the focus is on basic factors that have an impact on the individual consumer behavior. Results obtained on advertising product on social media are also affected by algorithms, but in the research study focus is not paid for it because it will take research on a different direction. Hence, it can be said that the research study is very specific in nature.
• Evaluation of objectives: The main aim of the research is to identify the impact of social media on individuals buying behavior. In the present research study in this regard four major objectives are prepared. First is related to brand awareness and the role social media play in assisting firms to increase brand awareness in the public. By addressing this objective attempt is made to identify whether social media can be used effectively by the company that recent enter into the the market and is at infant stage. The second objective is on impact of comments and likes people leave on the company FB page on people buying behavior. By revealing impact direct relationship between social media and buying behavior is identified. The third objective is impact of advertisement of offers on social media for people buying behavior. This objective is prepared to identify reasons due to which these offers get higher attentiveness among people and impact on buying behavior. Fourth objective is related to influences impact on buying behavior of individuals. Through this attempt is made to identify, do influencers use assist firm to affect buying behavior of individual using social media.
• Evaluation of literature review section: According to objectives different themes are prepared and arguments are done in this section. With respect to the first objective by comparing traditional and digital channel of communication reasons due to which social media have successfully created brand awareness is identified. In the second objective role that comments and likes playing information of perception about company among the people and its impact on buying behavior is identified. In third theme it is indicated that info related to offers is readily available on social media and this affect consumer behavior. In fourth theme reasons due to influencers recommendation is followed by the people is evaluated.

REFERENCE
Books and journals
Ahmad, N. S., Musa, R.. and Harun, M. H. M. 2016. The impact of social media content marketing (SMCM) towards brand health. Procedia Economics and Finance. 37(16). 331-336.
Alalwan, A. A. and et.al., 2017. Social media in marketing: A review and analysis of the existing literature. Telematics and Informatics. 34(7). 1177-1190.
Alves, H., Fernandes, C.. and Raposo, M. 2016. Social media marketing: a literature review and implications. Psychology & Marketing. 33(12). 1029-1038.
Ananda, A. S., Hernández-García, Á. and Lamberti, L., 2016. N-REL: A comprehensive framework of social media marketing strategic actions for marketing organizations. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. 1(3). 170-180.
Ashley, C.. and Tuten, T. 2015. Creative strategies in social media marketing: An exploratory study of branded social content and consumer engagement. Psychology & Marketing. 32(1). 15-27.
Attia, M.. and Edge, J. 2017. Be (com) ing a reflexive researcher: a developmental approach to research methodology. Open Review of Educational Research. 4(1). 33-45.
Azhdarzadeh, M. and et.al., 2015. Nanotoxicology: advances and pitfalls in research methodology. Nanomedicine. 10(18). 2931-2952.
Bresler, L.. and Stake, R. E. 2017. Qualitative research methodology in music education. In Critical Essays in Music Education (pp. 113-128). Routledge.
Dwivedi, Y. K., Kapoor, K. K.. and Chen, H. 2015. Social media marketing and advertising. The Marketing Review. 15(3). 289-309.
Felix, R., Rauschnabel, P. A.. and Hinsch, C. 2017. Elements of strategic social media marketing: A holistic framework. Journal of Business Research. 70. 118-126.
Fletcher, A. J. 2017. Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method. International journal of social research methodology. 20(2). 181-194.
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Lacka, E.. and Chong, A. 2016. Usability perspective on social media sites’ adoption in the B2B context. Industrial Marketing Management. 54. 80-91.
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Tandoc Jr, E. C.. and Vos, T. P. 2016. The journalist is marketing the news: Social media in the gatekeeping process. Journalism Practice. 10(8). 950-966.
Tuten, T. L.. and Solomon, M. R. 2017. Social media marketing. Sage.
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Business Research Plan

Introduction
Social media is one of the powerful and effective tools for marketing in the current time period. E-commerce companies and other sort of companies are using social media on a large scale to do the marketing of the product in an effective way. For E-commerce company’s now social media is the tool through they which easily communicates to the person attractive deals. Social media tools in recent years play a crucial role in assisting firms to generate sales online. Traffic simply view ad on the platform like Facebook and by clicking on it land on the company website where they can easily make purchase of the product. Many companies like Hubble observe strong growth in their revenue by doing Facebook marketing. Social media platforms also assist firms to provide better after sales service to the customers. Many times it is seen that if a customer has any grievance, it place same on social media and firm promptly respond to it. Thus, by doing so firms successfully create and retain customers in the business (Dahl, 2018). It can be said that there is huge significance of the social media platforms for the company.
Literature review
Social media and elevation in revenue
According to Karimi, and Naghibi, 2015 social media play a very important role in assisting firms to earn more revenue in the business. It can be observed that individuals find content that is presented in the social media very interesting and informative in nature. Due to this reason, social media content has strong power to persuade the people to buy the company product. More strong is content in better way firm can reach its target customers and can generate more revenue from them.
As per views of Ananda, Hernández-García, and Lamberti, 2016 proper marketing strategy that is implemented on social media platforms to promote word of mouth marketing among people. This makes brand popular and increase awareness about it among people. Consequently, individuals start trying company, product and this lead to elevation in sales of the revenue.
Ashley, and Tuten, 2015 state that those firms that provide subscription service gain huge benefits from the social media marketing. Such kind of firms, conducts contests and some activities on social media platform and promotes active engagement between people and them. Through this contest interest is developed among customers. Once the customer subscribes product every month product is delivered at its doorstep. Thus, more firm has retention rate and low churn rate it consistently earn more revenue from the social media platforms. Thus, social media platforms benefit more to the firms that follow social media platforms in their business.
Contrary to this Dahl, 2018 state that social media marketing always did not prove effective for the firms. There are a number of reasons behind this. One of the main reasons is that many times firms failed to identify their target audience accurately. Due to improper research or wrong assumptions firm failed to target its product to the customers in proper manner and due to this reason social media marketing campaign failed in the market.
Sometimes Armstrong, Delia, and Giardina, 2016 Facebook algorithm did not find that specific ad can generate better results. Moreover, changes in the algorithms directly affect ways in which marketing can be done in a better way on the social media platform like Facebook. Hence, type of ad firm formed and changes in algorithms also heavily affect the results that firm achieved through social media marketing efforts. Sometimes due to these reasons firm earn less revenue in Facebook marketing.

Evaluation of individual research plan
In the introduction section brief info about social media marketing is given. In this section effectiveness of the social media for the business firms is explained in detail. In this section example of the company is also given which successfully make use of social media for its business. By using example, it is reflected that social media is an effective tool of the marketing. In case any firm did not get the desired results, then it means that it is making mistakes somewhere. Example of success of Hubble contacts is the strong evidence of multiple benefits that firms receive in their business by making use of social media channels.
Considering objectives entire literature review section is classified into the four parts, namely social media impact on revenue, social media effectiveness measurement, social media and online engagement with people and a social media role in understanding customers. Classification will help the reader to easily navigate through the literature review section. By covering aspects like understanding and engagement with customers and revenue and performance measurement scope of the research study is made wide. These aspects are covered to reflect to the readers that use of the social media marketing is not just limited to the doing marketing of the company product. Social media has multiple advantages for the firm like it helps them to generate leads in the business, retargeting individuals, doing engagement with people and customers in a proper manner. Feedback can also be received from the social media platform. Thus, through research study by focusing on all these areas multiple advantages of social media marketing for the firms are explained in above sections.
In the research methodology section deep review of the entire research requirement is done. In the present research main aim is to identify patterns and accordingly form a theory that social media marketing prove effective for the firms. Hence, due to this reason the inductive research approach and interpretivism research philosophy is taken into the account. To identify patterns best way to do the analysis is conducted thematic analysis of the research study. Statistical tools are not used because it is used to prove any sort of theory or assumption. Thus, overall it can be said that research methodology is prepared by considering actual research requirements. Questions in the questionnaire will be arranged in a specific way so that respondent if given the wrong answer then it can be tracked. Hence, it can be assumed that data analysis will be done in proper manner.
REFERENCES
Books and Journals
Ananda, A. S., Hernández-García, Á.. and Lamberti, L. 2016. N-REL: A comprehensive framework of social media marketing strategic actions for marketing organizations. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge. 1(3). 170-180.
Armstrong, C. G., Delia, E. B.. and Giardina, M. D. 2016. Embracing the social in social media: An analysis of the social media marketing strategies of the Los Angeles Kings. Communication & Sport. 4(2). 145-165.
Ashley, C.. and Tuten, T. 2015. Creative strategies in social media marketing: An exploratory study of branded social content and consumer engagement. Psychology & Marketing. 32(1). 15-27.
Bøe, M., Hognestad, K.. and Waniganayake, M. 2017. Qualitative shadowing as a research methodology for exploring early childhood leadership in practice. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 45(4). 605-620.
Clarke, E.. and Visser, J. 2019. Pragmatic research methodology in education: possibilities and pitfalls. International Journal of Research & Method in Education. 42(5). 455-469.
Cordeiro, L., Rittenmeyer, L.. and Soares, C. B. 2015. Action research methodology in the health care field: a scoping review protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports. 13(8). 70-78.
Cronholm, S.. and Göbel, H., 2015. Empirical grounding of design science research methodology. In International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems (pp. 471-478). Springer, Cham.
Dahl, S. 2018. Social media marketing: Theories and applications. Sage.
Dwivedi, Y. K., Kapoor, K. K.. and Chen, H. 2015. Social media marketing and advertising. The Marketing Review. 15(3). 289-309.
Elgort, I. 2018. Technology-mediated second language vocabulary development: A review of trends in research methodology. calico journal. 35(1). 1-29.
Felix, R., Rauschnabel, P. A.. and Hinsch, C. 2017. Elements of strategic social media marketing: A holistic framework. Journal of Business Research. 70. 118-126.
Godey, B. and et.al., 2016. Social media marketing efforts of luxury brands: Influence on brand equity and consumer behavior. Journal of business research. 69(12). 5833-5841.
Hassan, S., Ahmad Nadzim, S. Z.. and Shiratuddin, N. 2015. Strategic use of social media for small business based on the AIDA model. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 172. 262-269.
Hathaway, H. and et.al., 2018. RMJ research series: How to write-up research methodology. Rwanda Medical Journal. 74(4). 16-19.
Iankova, S. and et.al., 2019. A comparison of social media marketing between B2B, B2C and mixed business models. Industrial Marketing Management. 81. 169-179.
Karimi, S.. and Naghibi, H. S. 2015. Social media marketing (SMM) strategies for small to medium enterprises (SMEs). International Journal of Information, Business and Management. 7(4). 86.
Knipe, S.. and Bottrell, C. 2015. JARA schedule: A tool for understanding research methodology. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 7(2). 17-30.
Kovalevska, I., Barabash, M.. and Snihur, V. 2018. Development of a research methodology and analysis of the stress state of a parting under the joint and downward mining of coal seams. Mining of Mineral Deposits. (12, Iss. 1). 76.
McKelvie, S.. and Standing, L. G. 2018. Teaching psychology research methodology across the curriculum to promote undergraduate publication: an eight-course structure and two helpful practices. Frontiers in Psychology. 9. 2295.
Seo, E. J.. and Park, J. W. 2018. A study on the effects of social media marketing activities on brand equity and customer response in the airline industry. Journal of Air Transport Management. 66. 36-41.
Sutrisna, M.. and Setiawan, W. 2016. 14 The application of grounded theory methodology in built environment research. Research methodology in the built environment: A selection of case studies, 231.
Tuten, T. L.. and Solomon, M. R. 2017. Social media marketing. Sage.
Vinerean, S. 2017. Importance of strategic social media marketing. Expert journal of marketing. 5(1).
Wang, Z.. and Kim, H. G. 2017. Can social media marketing improve customer relationship capabilities and firm performance? Dynamic capability perspective. Journal of Interactive Marketing. 39. 15-26.
Zimmerman, J.. and Ng, D. 2015. Social media marketing all-in-one for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRACTICE

INTRODUCTION
Introduction to ASDA
ASDA is one of the largest British supermarket retailers. It gives tough competition to the retailers like Tesco, Sainsbury, Lidl and Aldi etc. The company was established in the year 1949. After, Tesco mentioned company comes at second rank in the UK market. ASDA offered a wide variety of products to the customers (Steps we have taken in response to the Coronavirus outbreak., 2020). These products are groceries, clothes, furniture, food items etc. Apart from this, ASDA also provides other services like financial services and mobile services to its customers. ASDA total number of employees are 1, 65,000 and the firm is operating through stores in 631 locations.
Scenario
Currently, corona pandemic is going on across the world and these affect nation’s economies. ASDA business also heavily gets affected due to corona pandemic. ASDA planned to cut 4000 jobs in the market. The operational performance of the ASDA also gets affected. Not only operational performance HR performance also declines significantly. HR is worried about coronary disease and social distancing makes them realize that disease is going on a large scale and there life is at risk. Further, due to social distancing employees are not able to enjoy their life like they do before corona originate. Individuals cannot meet each other at public place. Moreover, chances of job loss and become ill due to corona are another factors that makes employees feel depressed. Consequently, performance on floor decline (Mahmud, Talukder and Rahman, 2020). Present research aimed at identifying extent to which employees at ASDA feel depressed or remain in stress and its impact on their job performance. In this regard, multiple changes that individuals observed in their personal life after corona pandemic due to social distancing will be taken into account. It will be identified whether it leads to depression and decline in job performance. Thus, through present research study main aim is to explore ways in which social distancing created a multiple problems for the individuals and these problems lead to depression and decline in performance on the floor (Khan, Farooq and Khan, 2020). Some of the aspects on which focus will be are reduced social interaction, and change in routine, feeling of low self esteem, motivation to prevent illness and irresponsible behavior of customers at the workplace. Many individuals believed that less social interaction is also making them depressed. Individuals often after working hours meet with their friends and relatives and spend some time with them. Due to social distancing now this is not or less part of life which lead to origination of anxiety among individuals. Thus, due to this reason the present research study is conducted and by doing so it will be identified whether social distancing lead to depression among individuals. If yes, then whether it affect employee performance at the workplace.


Conclusion and recommendation
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that social distancing caused depression among individuals that worked at ASDA retail stores. However, social distancing caused depression in multiple ways. Social distancing can be classified into two categories, namely one that was imposed by the Government in form of lockdown and another one that individuals themselves follow during daily routine (Shindel, Holland and Gallagher-Thompson, 2020). In both cases, individuals lost to a great extent their freedom and not able to fulfill their desire to meet beloved ones and enjoy the weekend and doing a party at the end of the month. So, basically social distancing lead to loss of freedom and unfulfilled desires which lead to anxiety and depression. Moreover, social distancing makes the individual feel that corona is going on a large scale and deaths are happening on large number. Thus, social distancing psychologically generate a feeling in individuals that condition is very serious and due to this reason one feel anxiety and then comes to depression.
Apart from this, on many occasions individuals observe that people nearby to them are not following social distancing related guidelines in a proper manner. This thing frustrates individuals and creates a fear factor in them that they can come in contact to corona virus in the workplace. Means that if someone is not following social distancing, then in that case one feel frustrated and by following social distancing one feel that it’s become socially isolated and life become bored and feel depressed (Zhou and et.al., 2020). In other words, it can be said that if one follow social distancing and sees the others are not following same concept then it goes into depression in each situation. This is because on one hand, one is feeling that life is at risk and on the other hand, it feels that it’s become socially isolated.
It is also concluded that stress and depression are directly impacting employee’s performance on the job. Companies are providing variance protection related items to the employees, but still there is a threat. Employees at retail stores follow rules, but customers did not do so. Hence, fear remains among employees that they may suffer from corona and due to this reason they are not able to focus on job consistently in a proper manner (Kufi and et.al., 2020). It can be said that depression directly affects employee’s performance in the workplace. Hence, in such kind of situation there is need to adopt some of the measures so that employees did not feel or feel less anxiety. In this regard, some recommendations are given below.
• Conducting meditation exercise: Meditation exercise sessions must be conducted online or at the workplace. Meditation techniques assist one to fight with stress and depression. If one does meditation with full concentration it can easily come out of depression. Hence, ASDA must conduct meditation related sessions at its workplace. In this regard, contact must be established with expert (Wei and et.al., 2020). It will be better that any Doctor is hired for this purpose. This is because mentioned individual have knowledge of meditation and ways in which it works in individual brain.
• Making available gloves to the customers: Gloves must be made available to the customers when they enter the premises. By doing so it will be ensured that with bare hands customers will not be able to touch each other.
• Charging penalty: In case ASDA did not make available gloves to the customers than it can charge a penalty on those who comes with bare hands. As alternative ASDA can deny those from entering premises that did not have gloves with them.
• Guiding customers at the workplace: Customers can be guided in a better way at the workplace about social distancing (Siddamreddy and et.al., 2020). This will make feel employees that guidelines are not violated and their life is secured at the workplace
• Giving frequent break to group of employees: Multiple breaks must be given to the employees and by that time they must be allowed to talk to each other while maintaining distance. Frequent break will assist in reducing their stress level at the workplace.


REFERENCES
Books and Journals
Alipour, A. and et.al., 2020. A New Self-Reported Assessment Measure for COVID-19 Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in Iran: A Web-Based Study. Iranian Journal of Public Health.
Bukhari, S. H.. and Bukhari, S. M. H. 2020. The Post-Corona World and International Political Landscape: Emerging Challenges. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies. 6(2). 453-461.
CAO, S., FENG, P. and SHI, P. 2020. Study on the epidemic development of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Hubei province by a modified SEIR model. Journal of Zhejiang University (Medical Science). 49(1), 0-0.
Cattelan, V. 2020. Sacred Euro: sovereign debt (s) and EU bare credit in the Corona crisis. Available at SSRN 3592382.
de Araújo Filho, W. D. and et.al., 2020. NEBULIZERS: AERODYNAMIC DROPLET DIAMETER CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DRUGS TO TREAT SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONA VIRUS 2 (SARS-COV-2). International Journal of Research-GRANTHAALAYAH. 8(7). 80-97.
Deng, S. L., Chen, J. G. and Wang, F. 2020. Microglia: A Central Player in Depression. Current Medical Science. 40(3),. 391-400.
Flick, U. 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Sage.
Fraenkel, P. and Cho, W. L. 2020. Reaching Up, Down, In, and Around: Couple and Family Coping During the Corona Virus Pandemic. Family Process.
Gunawan, C. I. 2020. Star 0Happy: A New Civilization The Instant Mass Strategy to Overcome Corona virus, Fears, and Hunger in Various Countries. IRDH Book Publisher.
Hannah, M., Hutta, J. S.. and Schemann, C. 2020. Thinking Corona measures with Foucault. Zitierdatum. 14. 20.