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Fundamentals of Management Studies and Skills

INTRODUCTION
In the reported case of Mr. Johnson is analyzed and principles of Fayol and the theory of Mintzberg is applied in a case study. Skills that one must have or need to develop to manage conflict in the proper manner is also discussed in the report. Self awareness skills that I need to develop is also explained in the report. At the end of the report, concluding section is prepared.
Main body
Mr. Johnson is appointed as manager of the plant that is owned by America Alliance Company. The plant is located in Nashville and it is one of the oldest plants owned by the above mentioned firm. Company top management observes that from couple of time period performance of the plant is consistently declining. Lack of strong leadership or close leadership may be one of the main reasons behind poor performance of the plant. Hence, considering this fact firm decides that power system will be decentralized and new manager will be appointed for plant. As per new plan newly appointed manager will look after entire operations of the plant other than sales. The sales team will directly report to the Vice President at home office. Remaining functional departments of the plant will be working under supervision of a newly appointed manager. However, it was determined that after the decentralization of power functional department of the plant will remain in contact with their counterparts but will have to receive orders only from newly appointed manager which is Mr. Johnson. Mentioned individual think that contact between functional departments heads of plant and relevant counterparts will create administrative problem for him.

CONCLUSION
It is concluded that while working on any job one face number of issues and it needs to identify alternative solutions of the problem. The manager must make as much as communication with its subordinates so that close relationship can be developed with them. Close relationship enables managers to understand its subordinates thinking and thought process and accordingly it react to a particular situation. This ensured that if any conflict arises, it will be resolved in proper manner. Manager must follow appropriate leadership style and develop EI skills so that conflict can be managed in proper manner at the workplace.

REFERENCE
Books and journals
Boyer, B. P., Scott, J. K.. and Nelson, J. A. 2016. Maternal conflict behavior profiles and child social skills. Social Development. 25(4). 759-776.
Chikere, C. C.. and Nwoka, J. 2015. The systems theory of management in modern day organizations-A study of Aldgate congress resort limited Port Harcourt. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 5(9). 1-7.
Dalkir, K. 2017. Knowledge management in theory and practice. MIT press.
Feldman, M.. and Worline, M. 2016. The practicality of practice theory. Academy of Management Learning & Education. 15(2). 304-324.
Folger, J., Poole, M. S.. and Stutman, R. K. 2015. Working through conflict: Strategies for relationships, groups, and organizations. Routledge.
Granlund, M.. and Lukka, K. 2017. Investigating highly established research paradigms: Reviving contextuality in contingency theory based management accounting research. Critical Perspectives on Accounting. 45. 63-80.
Locke, K. 2015. Pragmatic reflections on a conversation about grounded theory in management and organization studies. Organizational Research Methods. 18(4). 612-619.
Mayer, B. S. 2015. The conflict paradox: Seven dilemmas at the core of disputes. John Wiley & Sons.
Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R.. and Salovey, P. 2016. The ability model of emotional intelligence: Principles and updates. Emotion review. 8(4). 290-300.
Otley, D. 2016. The contingency theory of management accounting and control: 1980–2014. Management accounting research. 31. 45-62.
Petrides, K. V. and et.al., 2016. Developments in trait emotional intelligence research. Emotion review. 8(4). 335-341.
Schneider, M. C. and et.al., 2016. Power, conflict, and community: How gendered views of political power influence women’s political ambition. Political Psychology. 37(4). 515-531.
Serrat, O. 2017. Understanding and developing emotional intelligence. In Knowledge solutions (pp. 329-339). Springer, Singapore.
Taj, S. A. 2016. Application of signaling theory in management research: Addressing major gaps in theory. European Management Journal. 34(4). 338-348.
Tribus, M. 2015. The germ theory of management. Проблемы управления в социальных системах. 8(12).
Online
Hayol principles of management., 2020. [Online]. Available through:< https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henri-fayol.htm>.

Fundamentals of Management Skills and Studies

Case
Few months ago my friend got married but couple lives in different cities. My friend life partners worked at bank and due to corona its transfer has not been done by the bank. I was worried about marriage relationship of my friend and asked it whether relationship after marriage going on good. I try to find out if there is any sort of conflict between them due to which its life partner did not take transfer from city in which it currently reside. My friend thinks it as interference in its personal life and conflict arises between us.
Signals indicative of crossing a sensitive line?
When I do inquiry my friend got angry on me and clearly told that I am interfering in her personal life and must mind my own business. She was very angry at me and did not talk to me for few days.
Manifest of threat rigidity
I make multiple calls and send message but my friend did not give any sort of reply which was matter of concern for me.
Opportunity for personal growth
Yes, this was opportunity of personal growth for me because I came to know mistake I made and ways in which relationship become weak and ways in which even we care about someone make our relationship weak.
Areas of self awareness developed in me
• Self concept: Self concept is nothing but perception one has about itself. What we believe our abilities are expect from self in future comes in self concept (Mayer, Caruso and Salovey, 2016). After incident I was able to form perception about me as I come to know that due to over care I made interfere in other one life. Some may like interference and some may not. If someone did not like such kind of behavior then in that case my relationship with other one can become weak. In future I expect that I will stay away from others life and will give advice or make interfere when front one want I to do so. I understand that caring of others is good thing but we need to be selective that in which life we have to interfere and in which not. Other one may form wrong perception about us on speaking any line. Thus, considering front one behavior I believe we must determine how to deal with that person.

REFERENCE
Books and Journals
Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R. and Salovey, P., 2016. The ability model of emotional intelligence: Principles and updates. Emotion review. 8(4). 290-300.
Petrides, K. V. and et.al., 2016. Developments in trait emotional intelligence research. Emotion Review. 8(4). 335-341.
Serrat, O., 2017. Understanding and developing emotional intelligence. In Knowledge solutions (pp. 329-339). Springer, Singapore.

Fundamentals of Management Studies and Skills

Introduction
In the present research study case is analyzed and principles of Fayol and the theory of Mintzberg are analyzed deeply to identify ways in which Mr. Johnson can become the best manager in the workplace. In respect to conflict management skills that one must have identified and are discussed in detail. In the last part of the report, self awareness skills that I intend to develop are explained if I were in place of Mr. Johnson. Finally, conclusion section is prepared in the report.
Main Body
Mr. Johnson is appointed as manager of the plant that is located in Nashville, where one of the oldest units of the American Alliance company is located. Earlier, in the mentioned company there was centralized organization structure, but mentioned branch performance was poor. Considering this fact, top management of America Alliance Company decides to decentralize company operations. Mr. Johnson is responsible to manage entire plant operations other then sales. As per agreement or plan from now all teams related to varied functions will report to Mr. Johnson and mentioned person will receive command from home office. However, in few cases the functional head of plants can directly communicate with their counterparts in the front officer and this is one of major concern of Johnson and he think that such kind of things will create administrative problem for him.
It can be said that a major aspect of Johnson work as a manager is to manage varied functional departments and effectively do change management in the workplace as well as manage conflicts. Aspects of the Mr. Johnson work as manager can be better explained through Fayol principles. Unity of command applied in Johnson work. This principle state that individual employees must receive orders from only one individual and employee must be answerable only to that manager (Uzuegbu, and Nnadozie, 2015). If any individual will receive orders from multiple managers then in that case it will get confused and this will promote conflict among employees.
As per rules all functional department employees other then sales will receive an order from Johnson and it is an aspect of his work. However, these individuals will also remain in contact with the counterparts that are in the home office, but overall order they will receive from Johnson. Thus, management of varied functional departments is the aspect of the managerial job of Mr. Johnson. By following the principle of unity of command Johnson become a better manager at the workplace. Johnson need to ensure that counterparts are contacting each other and share information, but functional department employees working in plant are receiving and following only order received from his side. This thinking will help Johnson to become an effective leader and manager at the workplace.

Conclusion
On the basis of entire discussion, it is concluded that every manager face a lot of issues at the workplace and he need to identify alternative ways to handle a particular situation. One must promote interaction with the subordinates and by doing so better relationship can be developed with them. These assist managers to understand employee attitude and accordingly manager can identify a suitable approach to handle a particular situation. Meditation, appropriate leadership style and emotional intelligence are some of skills on which one must work to increase ability to manage conflict at the workplace.

REFERENCES
Books and journals
Andersen-Rodgers, D. R. 2015. No table necessary? Foreign policy crisis management techniques in non-state actor-triggered crises. Conflict Management and Peace Science. 32(2). 200-221.
Arop, F. O., Bassey, E. A.. and AWI, A. 2017. Administrators’ conflict management techniques and supervision of students’ legal rights in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Multi-Disciplinary Journal of Research and Development Perspectives. 6(2). 7-13.
Diehl, P. F.. and Regan, P. 2015. The interdependence of conflict management attempts. Conflict Management and Peace Science. 32(1). 99-107.
Fayol, H. 2016. General and industrial management. Ravenio Books.
Godwin, A. and et.al., 2017. Application of the Henri Fayol principles of management in startup organizations. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. 19(10). 78-85.
MAHVAR, T., FARAHANI, M. A.. and ARYANKHESAL, A. 2018. Conflict management strategies in coping with students’ disruptive behaviors in the classroom: Systematized review. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism. 6(3). 102.
Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R.. and Salovey, P. 2016. The ability model of emotional intelligence: Principles and updates. Emotion review. 8(4). 290-300.
Morden, T. 2017. Principles of management. Routledge.
Peña-Sarrionandia, A., Mikolajczak, M.. and Gross, J. J. 2015. Integrating emotion regulation and emotional intelligence traditions: a meta-analysis. Frontiers in psychology. 6. 160.
Petrides, K. V. and et.al., 2016. Developments in trait emotional intelligence research. Emotion Review. 8(4). 335-341.
Serrat, O. 2017. Understanding and developing emotional intelligence. In Knowledge solutions (pp. 329-339). Springer, Singapore.
Uzuegbu, C. P.. and Nnadozie, C. O. 2015. Henry Fayol’s 14 principles of management: Implications for libraries and information centres. Journal of Information Science theory and practice. 3(2). 58-72.
Wehr, P. 2019. Conflict regulation. Routledge.
Yirik, S., Yildirim, B. I.. and Çetinkaya, N. 2015. A study on conflict management and conflict resolution in hospitality organizations. International Journal of Arts & Sciences. 8(8). 77.
Online
14 principles of management (Fayol)., 2020.[Online]. Available through:< toolshero.com/management/14-principles-of-management/>.
Mintzberg identified some basics of management., 2020. [Online]. Available through:< https://www.business.com/articles/management-theory-of-henry-mintzberg-basics/>.

Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior is vast subject and motivation is its one of the most important topics. Now a day’s firms are focusing on motivating their employees so that they can be retained in the business for a long time. In the essay varied reasons due to which employees feel less motivated in UK firms is discussed in detail. Along with by applying varying motivation theories root cause of less motivation is identified in terms of psychological aspects. Critical comparison is made between Maslow, Herzberg and Mc Clelland theories in respect to specific points. At end of essay conclusion section is prepared.
In current time period it becomes very hard task to manage workforce in the business. There are a number of reasons due to which employees remain dissatisfied at the workplace which significantly affect their motivation level at the workplace. Some of the points related to UK work context are discussed below and suitability of motivation theories is identified.
Poor workplace relationships: In the UK, employees spend long working hours at their office and there is a high level of individualism in the workplace. Individualism score in the UK is 89 on the Hofstede model which validate that there is higher individualism in the mentioned nation. Due to individualism employees does not support each and other poor workplace relationships developed in the workplace (Tsai and et.al., 2016). Employees feel less motivated as they do not get the necessary support at the workplace. Maslow hierarchy theory state that each individual have social belonging needs and due to this reason, individuals like to work in groups. On the other hand, Herzberg theory state that there must be not scope for bullying behavior. In the workplace, healthy and good relationship must exist between peers and superiors as well as subordinates. Good workplace relationships motivate individual to stay long in the company.
In comparison, of Maslow and Herzberg theory, it can be said that former one does not state anything in detail about workplace relationships. It just talked about natural human behavior (Ryan. and Deci, 2017). On the other hand, the Herzberg theory in a more extensive way in respect to a firm state that strict action must taken against those who show bullying behavior. Herzberg more in detail, explores relationship between motivation and workplace relationships.

On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that UK firms can apply Herzberg theory in the workplace to increase the motivation level of employees then Maslow and Mc Clelland theory. This is because Maslow theory just talked about human needs and it does not discuss these with respect to the corporate environment. Further, in the theory things are not explained in detail. In Mc Clelland theory focus is narrowed relative to Herzberg theory (Wulf and Lewthwaite, 2016). Former one focus only on need for achievement, affiliation and power and it cannot address all multiple issues due to which employees feel less motivated at the workplace. On the other hand, in Herzberg theory things are explained more specifically and clearly and scope is also very wide. Hence, Herzberg theory is most suitable in UK work context because it have wide scope it is able address many reasons due to which employees feel less motivated at firms in UK.
REFERENCE
Books and Journals
Bozeman, B.. and Su, X. 2015. Public service motivation concepts and theory: A critique. Public Administration Review. 75(5). 700-710.
Brown, P. R. and et.al., 2015. The use of motivation theory in engineering education research: a systematic review of literature. European Journal of Engineering Education. 40(2). 186-205.
Dang-Pham, D.. and Pittayachawan, S. 2015. Comparing intention to avoid malware across contexts in a BYOD-enabled Australian university: A Protection Motivation Theory approach. Computers & Security. 48. 281-297.
Dweck, C. S. 2017. From needs to goals and representations: Foundations for a unified theory of motivation, personality, and development. Psychological review. 124(6). 689.
Hanus, B.. and Wu, Y. A. 2016. Impact of users’ security awareness on desktop security behavior: A protection motivation theory perspective. Information Systems Management. 33(1). 2-16.
Howard, J. and et.al., 2016. Motivation profiles at work: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 95. 74-89.
Lăzăroiu, G. 2015. Work motivation and organizational behavior. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice. 7(2). 66-75.
Menard, P., Bott, G. J.. and Crossler, R. E. 2017. User motivations in protecting information security: Protection motivation theory versus self-determination theory. Journal of Management Information Systems. 34(4). 1203-1230.
Nicholls, J. G. 2017. Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation: A theory and its implications for education. In Learning and motivation in the classroom (pp. 211-238). Routledge.