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Literary analysis has been done on the piece of literature written by Geeta Kothari in “If What You Eat, Then What Am I?”. There has been vivid use of simile in her literary work as it can be identified from the way in which she compared tuna to internal organs. It is important to understand the concept of simile and way it is used in literature to depict something (Fathma et al., 2020). Simile can be defined or conceptualized as a word or phrase that compares in between two or more using some common words. This involves the use of words such as ‘like’ or ‘as’. These words can be used in order to compare in between a feeling or an object to another appearing similar in nature or color. They can have similar physical appearances and are used to compare taking help of simile concepts. In this literary work, this has been used to compare the tuna fish with internal organs. The concept of simile is different from that of metaphor.
The concept of simile has been used as an element to add detailing to the imagination of the author in her childhood regarding the fish tuna. She narrates that she has never been able to tolerate the smell of fish tuna. However, her mother in order to satisfy her longing for American Food bought tuna. To her surprise, tuna starts smelling fishy which she has never received from tuna sandwiches she has tasted earlier. To her imagination, the tuna looks like a pink and shiny organ. This has been compared to that of some internal organs. In addition to this, another simile has been used to explain the look of tuna fish. To Geeta, the tuna fish which her mother bought looks more like that of bad foods which she does not want her to consume. In addition to this, there has been use of comparison in the textual description. Tuna Salad has been contrasted with tuna fish. Her mother does not seem to have known the differences between tuna fish and tuna salad. The latter is used to make sandwiches and hence, it becomes the American food which does not smell like fish tuna.

The symbol of sandwich made from tuna salad has been used as a contrasting symbol to food dishes preferred by Indians. Americans eat this sandwich and not the tuna fish which Geeta’s mother bought for her. Her taste has been synchronized with sandwich and not with tuna symbol of the eating pattern of other cultures. Hence, oxymoron along with symbolic form has been used as a literary analysis tool while writing the text. Geeta had a problem that her mother did not provide her western foods, just smiled at her friends and also complained that her full time working mother did not provide enough attention. This symbolizes and represents the fact that she always wants to be part of American culture, but her thought process still remains within the boundaries of Indian Culture (Grana, Cesar, 2020). She is so desperate about adopting American culture that married a foreign guy. However she also fears that her husband can leave her, just because she is vegetarian and belongs to Indian culture. On the other hand, using simile as an analytical device, the comparison observed by Kothari within American and Indian culture based on food habits can be explained (Kiel, 2018). Regarding this Kothari has pointed out various examples and memories within her, her mother and her husband.

Church, Kenneth W., et al. “Symbol sequence estimation in speech.” U.S. Patent Application No. 16/577,663.
Fathma, Dalilah, Nurlela Nurlela, and Muhammad Yusuf. “ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’UNDERSTANDING OF IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS AND ITS USE IN THEIR ESSAY: A CASE STUDY.” JOALL (Journal of Applied Linguistics & Literature) 5.1 (2020): 39-51.
Grana, Cesar, ed. Fact and symbol: Essays in the sociology of art and literature. Routledge, 2020.
Kiel, Miriam Janice Cohen. If I Am What I Eat, Who Am I? Using Food to Maintain Jewish Identity and Heritage in Norway. MS thesis. 2018.

Essay on Issues related organizational culture and their implications on IHRM Managers

Human resource management (HRM) is a foremost essential department of the business. Human resource management is closely associated with the management of people within company. Human resource manager role and duties are classified into three major areas: recruitment, worker compensation and advantages, and allocating / designing work. Essentially, HRM endeavors to enhance the efficiency of the company by lifting the efficiency of the workforces. Human resource manager are responsible for training and development, performance assessment and reward managing, such as managing wages and bonus approaches.
Apart from this, the organization culture plays an important part in the organization. Organization culture defines the fundamental to workforce how to behave in the company. Further, organization culture means the shared environment including, beliefs, norms, values, ethics, principles of the business. Organization culture significantly affects the performance of the employees (Schneider, 2017). In some extent performance of the employees (high or low) influenced by organizational culture. Furthermore, in this manner the report identified the issue that can company could face regarding the organizational culture with varied workforces. Along with this implications on human resource manger of organizational culture also has been explained in the report.
According to Imran, 2016 Culture for an organization can be said to be a personality for a person. It is a unique collection of beliefs, morals, principles and relationships that differentiate one firm from another. Each culture benefited from unique language, logo, rules/ regulation, policies and other forms. Further, it is possible a culture may have different site in similar companies. It occurs from different skills and talent, religious, qualifications, or social groups that signify their differences.
Workplace diversity can be explained as the assortment of differences between workforces in a company. There is hardly any firm which did not experience any diversity in the workplace. It involves not only how workforces recognize themselves but also how others workers view them. It also covers gender, age, religion, sexual orientation, residency category, mental and physical conditions, as well as various other diversities between workforces (Glisson, 2015).
Along with this, there are many advantages of having diversity in the company. Different qualities and skill together make a pool of talent in the workplace. Further, diverse perspectives, along with the extensive personal and professional experience drive innovation, creativity in works, even accomplish the needs of the consumer in more exciting manner. In addition, many attitudes, behavior and personalities can give climb to think out of the box. By providing a stage for open swap of thoughts in this manner companies can gain the greatest advantages of diverse environment (Hartnell, and et.al., 2016). Addition to it, high creativity leads to exposure to a variety of different perspectives and ideas. When staff doing same work in different style leads to new ideas, thus improving the creativity. Another, advantage of the diversity culture in the workforce is it helpful in problem solving management. It has been notice companies who have diverse workforce culture solve problem quick. In the views of Chatman, 2016 employees of diverse backgrounds have varied knowledge and views, for this they are capable to fetch various solutions to the desk. Thus, the appropriate solution can be select, which give rapid problem-solving.

• MNC’S should give proper T&D to all employees present in company so that they can clearly understand the company’s working cultures. This will be useful for company to avoid unnecessary clashes, quarrels, conflicts etc;
• HR should properly check all the cultural differences in different countries in order to prepare all the policies based on cultural differences;
• Cutural diversity in an organization can also lead to maximize company’s performance and productivity, if they are peroperly used by company’s HR;

Butt, M. and Katuse, P., 2017. International human resource management practices in automotive industry in Pakistan: Implications for economic growth.
Chatman, J.A. and O’Reilly, C.A., 2016. Paradigm lost: Reinvigorating the study of organizational culture. Research in Organizational Behavior. 36. pp.199-224.
Glisson, C., 2015. The role of organizational culture and climate in innovation and effectiveness. Human service organizations: management, leadership & governance. 39(4). pp.245-250.
Hartnell, C.A., and et.al., 2016. Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance? A test of competing predictions. Journal of Applied Psychology. 101(6). p.846.
Huhtala, M., Tolvanen, A., Mauno, S. and Feldt, T., 2015. The associations between ethical organizational culture, burnout, and engagement: A multilevel study. Journal of Business and Psychology. 30(2). pp.399-414.
Imran, M.K., Ilyas, M. and Aslam, U., 2016. Organizational learning through transformational leadership. The learning organization. 23(4). pp.232-248.
Islam, M.Z., Jasimuddin, S.M. and Hasan, I., 2015. Organizational culture, structure, technology infrastructure and knowledge sharing: Empirical evidence from MNCs based in Malaysia. Vine. 45(1). pp.67-88.
Lee, J.C., Shiue, Y.C. and Chen, C.Y., 2016. Examining the impacts of organizational culture and top management support of knowledge sharing on the success of software process improvement. Computers in Human Behavior. 54. pp.462-474.
Lester, G.V., Virick, M. and Clapp-Smith, R., 2016. Harnessing global mindset to positively impact advances in global leadership through international human resource management practices. In Advances in global leadership (pp. 325-349). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
O’Neill, J.W., Beauvais, L.L. and Scholl, R.W., 2016. The use of organizational culture and structure to guide strategic behavior: an information processing perspective. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management. 2(2). p.816.
Rees, G. and Smith, P. eds., 2017. Strategic human resource management: An international perspective. Sage.
Schneider, B., González-Romá, V., Ostroff, C. and West, M.A., 2017. Organizational climate and culture: Reflections on the history of the constructs in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology. 102(3). p.468.
Sekiguchi, T., Froese, F.J. and Iguchi, C., 2016. International human resource management of Japanese multinational corporations: Challenges and future directions. Asian Business & Management. 15(2). pp.83-109.

Essay on Issues organizations faces for knowledge management, 21st century patterns of working

Knowledge management can be defined as converting raw material information into useful information. This useful information is then used in place of other knowledge for the benefits of same kind of experiences. KM mainly contributes to numerous ideas, problem- solving, innovative projects and products which lead towards productivity. It is more than about what organization has learned in the past because it is all about creating a link between people and information to a point which is complete more than the just sum of all small parts (Liebowitz, 2019). Organization faces problems for knowledge management because of changing technology, measuring employee’s knowledge contribution to organization, shared information is up to date and accurate etc. This report consist of various issues which company faces related to knowledge management, different patterns of working in 21st century and what are their implications on IHRM managers. At the same time, it has also been observed that knowledge based economy is maximizing because now-a-days knowledge is entirely based on ideas. Different types of working patterns are been changed with the change in technology i.e. all working patterns are been shifting from traditional ways to modern ways i.e. through digitalization.
According to Hislop, 2018, management faces numerous issues related to knowledge management in their organization. It can be observed that with the changing patterns of work, there requires useful knowledge which is based on new ideas. It becomes challenge for the organization to keep such big data stored and share on the same frequency. It is very typical for management to keep motivated employees in order to share all their works and ideas as it will lead to success of whole management and maximize company’s productivity. Another challenge for company related to KM is that keeping up with ever- changing technology. It has been observed that technology are changing and upgrading from day- to- day is the most typical task for managers. Other challenge which is faced by company is that the knowledge is something which cannot be quantified (Webb, 2017). It should be under stable that when it comes to knowledge contribution, than focus is on shared purpose rather than its results or efforts.
Donate, 2015 argued that organization faces many challenges in keeping KM but there are solutions also present in order to resolve all the issues. KM for individual help in doing their work efficiently and it also useful in saving time in order to take better decision and help in problem solving. It helps the company in building bonds among the employees and also keeps people updated from time-to-time. KM for community helps in promoting professional skills, maturing in peer-to-peer monitoring. It also provides more effective networking and collaboration among employees in the organization. It also fosters professional code of conduct which includes all ethics and moral values which are then followed by all the members in the company. It also ensures that one common language should be used which will solve all the problems in diversified workforce. KM for organization is useful in assisting drive strategy in order to achieve goals for company (Liebowitz, 2016). It settles down all the problems as quickly as possible. Also, help in upgrading knowledge which is already embedded in products and services.

• KM should be present in every organization even retention of KM is having many issues but on the other hand, it is having many benefits too;
• KM help organization upgraded, accurate and up-to-date information which must be passed from correct channels with due permission from high authority. This will be helping organization to use knowledge in order to ensure better usage of information for preparing better strategies;
• Companies should use changing patterns of work in their company because this is what now liked by employees. In this way, company can even attract higher number of employees for their company;
• For employees, who wants to work as per their wishes can definitely use new patterns of work i.e. freelancers job, flexitime job etc. in order to earn higher.

Allmer, T., 2017. Zero-hour contracts are turning university lecturers off the job. The conversation.
Chalia, M., Broster, S., Roy, R., Somisetty, S. and Kelsall, A.W., 2018. G254 (P) Changing pattern of neonatal pda ligation across a network.
Donate, M.J. and de Pablo, J.D.S., 2015. The role of knowledge-oriented leadership in knowledge management practices and innovation. Journal of Business Research. 68(2). pp.360-370.
Freyssinet, J., 2016. “Zero-hour” contracts: Ideal flexibility?. Chronique Internationale de l’IRES. (3). pp.123-131.
Gallie, D., 2017. The quality of work in a changing labour market. Social Policy & Administration. 51(2). pp.226-243.
Hislop, D., Bosua, R. and Helms, R., 2018. Knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction. Oxford University Press.
Inkinen, H., 2016. Review of empirical research on knowledge management practices and firm performance. Journal of knowledge management. 20(2). pp.230-257.
Liebowitz, J. and Frank, M. eds., 2016. Knowledge management and e-learning. CRC press.’
Liebowitz, J., 2019. Building organizational intelligence: A knowledge management primer. CRC press.
Mäntymäki, M. and Riemer, K., 2016. Enterprise social networking: A knowledge management perspective. International Journal of Information Management. 36(6). pp.1042-1052.
Santoro, G., Vrontis, D., Thrassou, A. and Dezi, L., 2018. The Internet of Things: Building a knowledge management system for open innovation and knowledge management capacity. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 136. pp.347-354.
Teague, P., Roche, W.K., Gormley, T. and Currie, D., 2015. The Changing Pattern of Workplace Conflict in Ireland.
Webb, S.P., 2017. Knowledge management: Linchpin of change. Routledge.

“Think Globally, Act Locally”

Evaluating competencies and knowledge of IHRM professionals
Measuring is the most important aspect of any performance process because it includes that how well transformation & continuous procedure took place in any organization. Measuring can be done in various terms related to HRM competencies i.e. good or bad, strong or weak, high or low, positive or negative and possible or impossible.

It is concluded from the above study that Geocentric staffing strategy is good when the company successfully give training to the person in order to adjust in the organization. MNC can build up a team of senior executives with exposure to international borders. While on the other its weak when proper scrutiny is not done properly. Further, ethnocentric approach is good when employees of another branch offer its positive environment which gives confidence and assurance to the culture. On the other side it is weak when applicant experience neo-racialism in host country.

Impact of big mall on small shops and advantages and disadvantages

It has been noted over time; Customer purchasing behavior is changing aggressively over time. Further, in several past years, shopping small business has boost up noticeably. Now it has been everywhere in the city, whether its small town, or metro cities they are all over the place. Along with this, this sector has evolved dramatically change from traditional retail shop (kirana), roads to splendid powerful malls and luxurious shops, growing from strength to power (Medrano, and et.al., 2016). In addition, it has been seen people are more likely to shopping from mall rather than small shops. The main cause of shop at mall is convenience. People get daily requirements as such groceries, vegetable, shoes, attire and so on, in stop. In short it can be said that one stop to all solution of daily problems. Moreover, the entire study is focused on impacts of big malls on small shops, and their advantages and disadvantages.

It has been concluded from the above study that entire essay is focused on the shopping malls, their impact on small shops. There are lots of reasons by which people more likely to buy products from mall instead of retail shop. One stop for all solutions, it is main advantages of the purchasing from the mall. People can eat, shop, entertained beneath one roof. Mall provides wide variety of items for every preference. It has been concluded that small shop are affecting adversely after the development of the malls. In addition, it impacts the business of small shop by affecting its profit, net gross income, saving pattern, sales and so on. Apart from this, the above study also evaluates the advantages or disadvantages of the shopping malls. Parking facility, entertainment, discounts, sales, and many more are taken as advantages of the mall. Overcrowd, carbon emission and more are disadvantages of the mall.

Books and Journals
Archana, D., 2016. Impact of Big Corporate Houses ON Small Retailers And Consumers With Special Reference To Indore.
Battersby, J., 2017. Food system transformation in the absence of food system planning: The case of supermarket and shopping mall retail expansion in Cape Town, South Africa. Built Environment. 43(3). pp.417-430.
Heffner, K. and Twardzik, M., 2015. The impact of shopping centers in rural areas and small towns in the outer metropolitan zone (the example of the Silesian Voivodeship). European Countryside. 7(2). pp.87-100.
Laghaei, J., Faghri, A. and Li, M., 2016. Impacts of home shopping on vehicle operations and greenhouse gas emissions: multi-year regional study. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology. 23(5). pp.381-391.
Malik, S.M., Ali, A., Ullah, S. and Ali, A., 2019. Impacts of Land Use Dynamics and Accessibility on the Bid Rent System in the Central Business District of Peshawar-Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 39(3).
Markham, J.E., 2016. The future of shopping: traditional patterns and net effects. Springer.
Medrano, N., and et.al., 2016. Consumer behavior in shopping streets: the importance of the salesperson’s professional personal attention. Frontiers in psychology. 7. p.125.
Shoag, D. and Veuger, S., 2018. Shops and the city: Evidence on local externalities and local government policy from big-box bankruptcies. Review of Economics and Statistics. 100(3). pp.440-453.
Srivastava, R.K., 2015. Impact of Malls on Small Retailers. In Proceedings of the 2009 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 135-138). Springer, Cham.
Strydom, J., 2015. David against Goliath: Predicting the survival of formal small businesses in Soweto. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER). 14(3). pp.463-476.
Zhang, D., Zhu, P. and Ye, Y., 2016. The effects of E-commerce on the demand for commercial real estate. Cities. 51. pp.106-120.

Link between progress in IT and social change

From the past decades, some tools were designed by humans to perform any operation. A massive shift in technology results in shifting social structures, and also contributes to the living of the society. Today, technology has enabled many businesses to automate work that was carried out by humans. It can be noted that technology has removed some types of jobs and also have created new ones. The report is all about establishing the create a link between technical progress in information technology (IT) and social change. Along with it, explore the increase in computing power with technological growth. This study concludes about the positive impact of technology within society.

From the above, it can be adequately concluded that technology has led to cause a positive impact on the development of society. The essay concluded a definite link between growth in information technology and the changes that had happened within the society. Moreover, the essay concludes that technology and social change are related because they are related to the dynamics of social life. It can also be summarized that technology also has improved the adequate amount of connectivity between people through the emergence of social networking and the Internet.

Books and Journals
Boyle, E.A., Connolly, T.M., Hainey, T. and Boyle, J.M., 2012. Engagement in digital entertainment games: A systematic review. Computers in human behavior, 28(3), pp.771-780.
Goh, K.Y., Heng, C.S. and Lin, Z., 2013. Social media brand community and consumer behavior: Quantifying the relative impact of user-and marketer-generated content. Information Systems Research, 24(1), pp.88-107.
Long, R.J., 2018. New office information technology: Human and managerial implications. Routledge.
Miller, C.H., 2014. Digital storytelling: A creator’s guide to interactive entertainment. Routledge.
Scarbrough, H. and Corbett, J.M., 2013. Technology and Organization (RLE: Organizations): Power, Meaning and Deisgn. Routledge.
Vicente, K.J., 2013. The human factor: Revolutionizing the way people live with technology. Routledge.
Yang, B., Kim, Y. and Yoo, C., 2013. The integrated mobile advertising model: The effects of technology-and emotion-based evaluations. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), pp.1345-1352.
Derek O’ Halloran, 2015 [online] [Accessed through] [Accessed on 16th November, 2019]
Nick Ismail, 2017 [online] [Accessed through] [Accessed on 16th November, 2019]
Osmond Vitez, 2019 [online] [Accessed through] [Accessed on 16th November, 2019]

Problems faced by new graduates while entering into their careers

INTRODUCTION with Thesis Statement
“An Exploration of Challenges Faced by Unemployed University Graduate Students: A Case of a Rural University in the Limpopo Province. Gender & Behaviour” stated that 70% graduates want core functional based jobs which are big challenges for getting their dream job after completing graduation or post- graduation.
New graduates face many challenges when they want to start their career such as they are not having real world experience, unrealistic expectations, poor interview skills, etc. One most common challenge which every graduate faces is that they don’t have working experience that becomes greatest barrier for them to crack the interview (Tharenou, 2015). It has been also observed that many companies don’t prefer fresher and they want someone who is experienced. Another challenge is that most of them don’t even know that what they have to do and what is the best field for them to start their careers. It is because of lack of direction as they are not having any senior that can give them proper counseling. Graduates also have unrealistic expectations of their jobs, and also have poor interview skills because of which they cannot crack the interview.

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that there are many challenges that graduate faces while they start to enter into their careers. This all problems can be resolved by proper planning and working on all issues in order to grab the job opportunities.  
Crawford and et.al., 2016. Higher Education, Career Opportunities, and Intergenerational Inequality. pp.553-75
Fominience and et.al., 2015. Employees’ Career Competence for Career Success: Aspect of Human Resources Management in Tourism Sector. pp. 481-93
Eunice, K. B., T. J., M., & D., N. (2018). An Exploration of Challenges Faced by Unemployed University Graduate Students: A Case of a Rural University in the Limpopo Province. Gender & Behaviour, 16(2), 11465–11484.
Tharenou, Phyllis., (2015). Chinese International Business Graduates: A Career Dilemma: Repatriate or Stay?. pp.37-59

Essay on tragic deaths

Tragic events like death of a loved one be announced or commemorated on social media. These events must be announced on the social media channel like Facebook and there are a number of reasons behind this. Social media have unique value during such distressing time. After shooting happened at the Virginia Tech University it was observed that a large number of online groups was formed where individuals express their grief to those who were dying in the campus during shooting. Use of Facebook platform to register sorrow change the way of grief these days. Through social media platform one gets connected to the community of the peers and on same group that is on Facebook individuals share their memories. In terms of memories individuals share videos and photos with the dead individual. In this way they show their sorrow openly on social media and feel good.
Often in the traditional way of mourning one show grief and after few days start losing memory about that individual. On the other hand, social media is the channel where individuals can view images and photos related to the individual even it died and publicly easily can share their feelings and emotions about the dead individual. Thus, freedom factor is seen on the social media channels. In the year 2010 a study was conducted in which it was found that after 2007 Virginia Tech and 2008 Northern Illinois University shootings students use Facebook platform openly to talk about the incident. These also assist them to temporarily get relief from the pain. Thus, it can be said that there is huge significance of the social media platform for the individuals in respect to expressing grief in relation to the dead individual. Till the year 2007 it was Facebook policy to delete a Facebook page of those who died.

Death remains a taboo topic in the many nations. It is hard to discuss about it openly in the general public. 198 teenagers lost their friends in an incident. Friends related to these teenagers find it difficult to open express their sorrow and grief towards those who died in the incident. By making post on the social media page they were able to break varied taboos surrounding death. It can be said that social media platforms must be used to express grief and sorrow because on wall by viewing photo and videos one can refresh memory about someone. Existence of FB page of died individual make individuals feel its virtual presence.


Crowd sourcing now days is commonly used by the firms because it benefits the business firm in multiple ways. There are varied types of crowd sourcing and crowd creation is one them under which multiple people joins company online and assists it in completion of task. On other hand, there is crowd wisdom under which expertise of large group of people is used to solve any specific problem. In crowd voting opinion of general public is taken into account by media to rank specific content in news. On other hand, in case of crowd funding online fund is raised from the investors by informing them about company project. At end of the report, crowd funding case study is analyzed and merits as well as demerits of crowd funding are also explained in detail.
What is crowd sourcing?
Outsource is the common word that people know in the 21st century. Similar to outsource there is another name which is known as crowd source. Both seems similar but are completely different from each other. In case of outsource firm contact with the company that is operating in another nation and use that company HR to get the task done (Kietzmann., 2017). On the other hand, in case of crowd source scene is completely different and it can be seen that here company does not contact with any other firm headquartered in foreign nations. Instead, the firm goes online and search for the best talent and entrust them company task and on completion make payment to them. Crowd sourcing is not just confined to the outsource of the company task. It also includes data collection related tasks. Data can be collected from people of any nation. Thus, it can be said that the scope of crowd sourcing is wide and it is completely different from outsource.

On the basis of above discussion, it is concluded that crowd sourcing is to large extent beneficial for the firm and it can benefit from it in multiple ways. Thus, in varied areas crowd sourcing must be used so that cost can be reduced and work can be obtained in stipulated time period of better quality.

Books and journals
Aitamurto, T., 2019. Crowdfunding for Journalism. The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies. pp.1-4.
Block, J., Hornuf, L. and Moritz, A., 2018. Which updates during an equity crowdfunding campaign increase crowd participation?. Small Business Economics. 50(1), pp.3-27.
Du, Z. and Zhu, W., 2017. The role of data in crowdsourcing platform.
Harrison, R.T., 2017. Definition of crowdfunding. In Crowdfunding and Entrepreneurial Finance (pp. 66-68). Routledge.
Hunter, A., 2016. “It’s Like Having a Second Full-Time Job” Crowdfunding, journalism and labour. Journalism Practice. 10(2). pp.217-232.
Kietzmann, J.H., 2017. Crowdsourcing: A revised definition and introduction to new research. Business horizons. 60(2). pp.151-153.
Kuppuswamy, V. and Bayus, B.L., 2018. Crowdfunding creative ideas: The dynamics of project backers. In The economics of crowdfunding (pp. 151-182). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Vergara, R.A.G., 2017. Extending the Definition of Crowdfunding Success: The Case of the Flight of Super Mudball. Journal of Global Business.
Zuchowski, O., and et.al., 2016. Internal crowdsourcing: conceptual framework, structured review, and research agenda. Journal of Information Technology. 31(2). pp.166-184.
How the correspondent crowd funded $2.5 m in 29 days., 2019. [Online]. Available through:< https://engagedjournalism.com/resources/the-correspondent-crowdfunding-rob-wijnberg-unbreaking-news-the-daily-show>.

Crowd sourcing

Crowd sourcing in today era is commonly used by the business firms. Cost cutting and getting highly skilled labors are two factors that are motivating firms to resort to crowd sourcing sources (Brabham, 2017). In the present research study crowd sourcing types are explained in detail. Crowd wisdom, crowd funding, crowd creation and crowd voting are types of crowd sourcing. Crowd wisdom is used when firm intend to develop unique thing or intend to solve specific problem. Crowd funding is used when firm intend to raise equity without losing its stake or losing only small percentage of stake relative to VC. Crowd creation is used when firm have specific problem intend to obtain useful suggestions from individuals. On other hand, crowd voting is used when any company intend to know public opinion so as to prepare products according to people needs and wants. At end of the report, Oscar plastic crowd funding case is analyzed and merits as well as demerits of crowd funding are discussed in detail.
What is crowd sourcing?
It is the arrangement under which firm or company gets done work through others through online platforms. Work may be any; it may be related to productive activity or may simply be just a data collection task. Practice under which to get task done company do not keep in-house team and hire individuals online is known as crowd sourcing.Search for skilled HR is the one of the main objectives behind crowd sourcing practices of the firms (Borchert, and et.al., 2017). When company intends to develop complex algorithms, it basically resorts to the crowd sourcing in order to get word done in an accurate way on time from a skilled person. Cost cutting is another factor that motivates firms for following crowd sourcing practice in the business. To in-house team a firm needs to pay fixed salary considering cost of living in the city. On the other hand, under crowd sourcing firms can obtain HR at very low cost relative to the cost they have to bear if they keep in-house team. Hence, at low cost, highly skilled individual can be hired by the firm from anywhere in the world. Crowd sourcing assist firms in cost cutting and getting work done through skilled professionals in proper manner and on time (Cumming, and et.al., 2020).

On analysis of all types of crowd sourcing it is identified that these help firms to cut their HR cost and get work done through talented individuals on time. Thus, work is received on time and of best quality. This is the reason due to which crowd sourcing become very popular among firms.

Books and Journals
Borchert, K., and et.al., 2017. Impact of task recommendation systems in crowdsourcing platforms.
Brabham, D.C., 2017. Crowdsourcing. The international encyclopedia of organizational communication. pp.1-6.
Cumming, D.J., and et.al., 2020. Disentangling crowdfunding from fraudfunding. Max Planck Institute for Innovation & competition research paper. (16-09).
Hornuf, L. and Neuenkirch, M., 2017. Pricing shares in equity crowdfunding. Small Business Economics. 48(4). pp.795-811.
Huang, Y. and Chen, M., 2019. Key Technology Difficulties of Crowdsourcing in Petrochemical Industry. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 55(5). pp.635-642.
Poesio, M., Chamberlain, J. and Kruschwitz, U., 2017. Crowdsourcing. In Handbook of Linguistic Annotation (pp. 277-295). Springer, Dordrecht.
Vianna, F., Peinado, J. and Graeml, A.R., 2019. Crowdsourcing Platforms: Objective, Activities and Motivation.
Zogaj, S., 2016. Governance of Crowdsourcing: Managing Crowdsourcing Projects from a Crowdsourcing System Perspective (Vol. 13). kassel university press GmbH.
Vismara, S., 2016. Equity retention and social network theory in equity crowdfunding. Small Business Economics. 46(4). pp.579-590.
Equity crowd funding- a case study., 2019. [Online] Accessed through:

Crowd Sourcing and its types

Crowd sourcing is commonly used by the business firms in today time period to get technical and non technical done from skilled and unskilled people at low cost. There are many types of crowd sourcing like crowd wisdom, creation, funding and crowd voting (Morschheuser, 2016). In case of crowd wisdom advice or task is get done from the group of technicians or domain experts. On other hand, in case of crowd creation creative task is delegated to number of people and they are rewarded if companies like their work. In case of crowd voting information related to public thought is gathered. In case of crowd funding firm is raised from the online platform. At end, case of crowd funding is evaluated and its positive and negative sides are evaluated.
What is crowd sourcing?
In the business numbers of types of expenditures are made by the business firm and all of these expenses cover specific portion of the total sales revenue. HR cost is the one of the expense that covers at least 30% of total revenue of every company. Share of HR expense may be more in the total sales revenue. This is the reason due to which most of the business firms now a day’s give due importance to the control of HR expenses in the business. In current time period there are alternatives that are available to the business firms in this regard. Some of these alternatives are outsourcing and crowd sourcing (Van Dusen, and Wise, 2016). There is difference between both terms. One of the main differences between both is that in case of outsourcing company outsources its task to any other company that is located in other nation of the world at cheaper cost. On other hand, in case crowd sourcing company outsource its specific task online and those who have capability, work on that task online and get paid. Other main difference between crowd sourcing and outsource is that in outsource tasks that require moderate or no intellectual capability are given to the specific company. On other hand, in crowd sourcing only a particular task where company is facing problem is delegated online to individual or group of people. Hence, it can be said that to some extent there is difference between crowd source and outsource in terms of nature of work outsource (Poblet, and Casanovas, 2018).

On basis of above discussion it is concluded that there is significant importance of the crowd funding platform for the business firms because through it in easy way required amount of fund can be raised by the firm. It is also concluded that there are multiple types of crowd sources and firms according to their requirement must choose relevant one so that best quality work can be obtained on time and at low cost. By making use of crowd sourcing effective use of HR can be done at the workplace.

Books and Journals
Alves, M.R.R., 2019. Crowd Voting: Impacts on Product Sales in Marketplaces. International Journal of Business Administration. 10(3).
Cumming, D.J., and et.al., 2020. Disentangling crowdfunding from fraudfunding. Max Planck Institute for Innovation & competition research paper. (16-09).
Lee, B., 2018. Financing Public Education via Crowdfunding: K-12 Teachers as Social Entrepreneurs.
Morschheuser, B., Hamari, J. and Koivisto, J., 2016. January. Gamification in crowdsourcing: a review. In 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) (pp. 4375-4384). IEEE.
Poblet, M., García-Cuesta, E. and Casanovas, P., 2018. Crowdsourcing roles, methods and tools for data-intensive disaster management. Information Systems Frontiers. 20(6). pp.1363-1379.
Prelec, D., Seung, H.S. and McCoy, J., 2017. A solution to the single-question crowd wisdom problem. Nature. 541(7638). pp.532-535.
Seguin, M.J., 2017. Digging Online: Crowdfunding for Archaeology (Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo).
Stol, K.J., LaToza, T.D. and Bird, C., 2017. Crowdsourcing for software engineering. IEEE software. 34(2). pp.30-36.
Van Dusen, D.A. and Wise, J.A., LOCI, 2016. System and method for fuzzy concept mapping, voting ontology crowd sourcing, and technology prediction. U.S. Patent 9,461,876.
Williams, B.P., and et.al, 2017. Crowd-sourced creation and updating of area description file for mobile device localization. U.S. Patent 9,811,734.
How an independent news site in EI Salvador raised $ 27000 in crowdfunding., 2019. [Online] Accessed through:

Causes and Effects of Airlines Joint Venture

A joint venture (JV) can be called a business agreement in which two or more companies consent to merge their sources with the intention of achieving a particular task. The project may be a new business operation or some other activity. Along with this talking about airlines, a foremost move in airline contribution was the arrival of joint ventures (JVs). Further, in many nations it needed narrow vaccination from anti-trust laws. JV alliance in airlines involves flight arrangement and pricing synchronization along with other business-related deeds (Avenali, et al. 2018). The concord allows companies to enlarge their business because it is the airlines firm support each other in domestic market. Addition to it, further the entire report is focused on airline joint venture. Moreover, the current study also evaluates the causes and effect of the JV on airlines.
Main body
Causes of Airlines Joint Venture
It has been seen joint venture gives many benefit to the companies. Further, in the year 1997, the first joint venture (JV) was made between Northwest Airlines and KLM and since then organization is constructing JV till now. Moreover, airline involvement is more multifaceted and superior than ever, both for improved and for inferior. It has been seen that airlines desire to work with other companies of airlines that best complement them. Additionally, agreement formed in many different forms. Along with this, interline agreements are the most fundamental type of agreement that can be made between airlines (Baxter, 2019). When people are travelling on several airlines in the same journey an inter-settlement between airlines will make. It is simply a commercial agreement to handle travellers. Along with this, this agreement permits customers to ensure their luggage through their last destination.
Moreover, a code share accord is the advanced level of collaboration between the airlines. When two airlines understand the worth in working mutually, in order to this the airline organization made a decision to put “codes” in each other’s flights (Yan, and Luo, 2016). The main advantage is that it does business for airlines that are in code share contracts with each other. For instance, Air Canada is element of the Star Alliance and Cathay is component of Pacific One world. They have mutually decided to code share on both ends of their air travels between Canada and Hong Kong. In addition, Air Canada flies to Hong Kong, in this way there is no Star Alliance airline has a centre in Hong Kong. Air Canada cannot help the customers who wish to travel outside Hong Kong. For resolving this issue, Air Canada provides passengers with entrée to more destinations at various points in Asia from Hong Kong by Cathay Pacific. This was the main cause because of which two airlines get into Joint Venture. On the other side, Cathay Pacific flutter to both Toronto and Vancouver, in the contrast Cathay Pacific provides passengers to Air Canada routes at various points in Canada, allowing travellers admittance to more destinations (Ustaömer, Durmaz, and Lei, 2015). As a result, code share agreement makes beneficial for both the firms. Many airline companies get into Joint Venture in order to take mutual benefits; this is also one of the costs of companies for getting into JV (Bilotkach, and Hüschelrath, 2019).

It has been summarised from the above study that the overall research is focused on the airline joint venture. Globalization has steadily increasing; in this way individual shipper are most of the times not capable to attain the requirements due to price, resources, technology limitations. In order to fulfil the needs and demands, airlines have to make agreement that facilitate consumers to take a trip on numerous airlines with a single buy. Further, it has been observed in the above report that there are diverse forms of agreements in the airline industry nowadays. Code share, alliances and interline are the forms of JV explained in the research. The study also investigate the cause of the airline JV as such cost reduction, increasing economy, customer welfare and many more. Moreover, it gives the airline caters numerous benefits in the business. Economy, facility, technology, sources and all affect positively by JV.

Avenali, A., Bracaglia, V., D’Alfonso, T. and Reverberi, P., 2018. Strategic formation and welfare effects of airline-high speed rail agreements. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 117, pp.393-411.
Baxter, G., 2019. Capturing and Delivering Value in the Trans-Atlantic Air Travel Market: The Case of the Air France-KLM, Delta Air Lines, and Virgin Atlantic Airways Strategic Joint Venture. MAD-Magazine of Aviation Development, 7(1), pp.17-37.
Bilotkach, V. and Hüschelrath, K., 2019. Balancing competition and cooperation: Evidence from transatlantic airline markets. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 120, pp.1-16.
Fageda, X., Flores-Fillol, R. and Theilen, B., 2019. Joint Ventures in the Transatlantic Airline Market. Airline Economics in Europe (Advances in Airline Economics, 8, pp.117-136.
Israel, M.A., Calzaretta, R. and Eilat, Y., 2017. Airline Cooperation and International Travel: Analyses of the Impact of Antitrust Immunity and Joint Ventures on Fares and Traffic. Available at SSRN 2921941.
Khan, Z., Shenkar, O. and Lew, Y.K., 2015. Knowledge transfer from international joint ventures to local suppliers in a developing economy. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(6), pp.656-675.
Kim, T.J., Kim, K.W., Park, S.S. and Lee, S.M., 2018. A Study of the Effect of Perceived Service Quality under the New Service Environment on Formulating Airline’s Global Brand (Joint Venture) Image. Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics, 26(3), pp.66-76.
Kleymann, B. and Seristö, H., 2017. Managing strategic airline alliances. Routledge.
Miller, N.H. and Weinberg, M.C., 2017. Understanding the price effects of the MillerCoors joint venture. Econometrica, 85(6), pp.1763-1791.
Mohr, A., Wang, C. and Goerzen, A., 2016. The impact of partner diversity within multiparty international joint ventures. International business review, 25(4), pp.883-894.
Moss, D.L., 2019. Alliances and Antitrust Immunity: Why Domestic Airline Competition Matters. The Air and Space Lawyer, 32(1), pp.1-18.
Samano, M., Santugini, M. and Zaccour, G., 2017. Dynamics in research joint ventures and R&D collaborations. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 77, pp.70-92.
Ustaömer, T.C., Durmaz, V. and Lei, Z., 2015. The effect of joint ventures on airline competition: The case of American airlines, British airways and Iberia joint business. Procedia-Social and behavioral sciences, 210, pp.430-439.
Yan, A. and Luo, Y., 2016. International Joint Ventures: Theory and Practice: Theory and Practice. Routledge.

Teamwork: Advantages and Disadvantages

Each person in a team has to execute in their best possible way to fulfill a common predefined objective that called Teamwork. Sometimes a single brain is not enough to take critical decision. This is one of the main reasons why teamwork is significant. Further, it requires support and supervision of other person to bring out with an effectual resolution. Every individual of the team experience many challenges, opportunity, benefits and more (Baker, et al. 2016). Along with this, the current report is focused on the Teamwork advantages and disadvantages. The position of individual for this report is leader. This position is very important because this individual always tries to keep every member of team involved in a team.
Working in a team there are many pros and cons are experienced by leader as well as team members. Some significant aspects are discussed below-
As team leader following are the benefits which comes forward are as follow-
As a reason of choosing this position, it is explained in such a way that I have the experience and skills to manage the group effectively. It is a well-known fact that each group needs a good leader to inspire, react, correct mistakes, supervise, control. This is why I choose this position because of the organizing skills that I have in this way that I can make the best use of it.
One of the leading advantages of the teamwork is division of work. As a leader in an organization; no one can do all the work alone. Further, working in a team is beneficial because the work load will divide among team members. Individual did not look all the aspect of project individually. Every member has at least one part of the work to deal with. It is true smaller tasks require less time and endeavor so that the workload in the squad is notably reduced (Deichmann, and Jensen, 2018).
Although working in a team is does not mean that person only focus on its part only. Obviously first priority is for assign work. Once individual complete the task, member should other mates of the group. It is a sign of effective team. When a person is a component of a group, they will learn automatically how to work in a modest and selfless way. Further, actually Team work is a cooperative attempt for each and every team associate to attain their affirmed objective. As a team leader, it is the duty to give supervision to all the members of the team, in a way to achieve the defined goal (Driskell, Salas,and Driskell, 2018).

Teamwork is considered science as well as art. Some groups work very well mutually, while others feel that they have split up or actually impede progress. Some recommendation are give below to built effect team are-
• Communication is very important it is because it helps in determining the problem and to solve the issues.
• It is recommend to give task according to the skills and traits to the members of the team.
• Set clear objectives so everyone can do their best to achiving those defined objective.
• Clarification of roles, duties and responsibilities are also needed in the team which is set by leader.
• Actively participation from all the people of the group is neecesary.

Baker, D.P., Salas, E., Battles, J.B. and King, H.B., 2016. The relation between teamwork and patient safety. In Handbook of human factors and ergonomics in health care and patient safety (pp. 214-227). CRC Press.
Deichmann, D. and Jensen, M., 2018. I can do that alone… or not? H ow idea generators juggle between the pros and cons of teamwork. Strategic Management Journal, 39(2), pp.458-475.
Driskell, J.E., Salas, E. and Driskell, T., 2018. Foundations of teamwork and collaboration. American Psychologist, 73(4), p.334.
Fidalgo-Blanco, Á., Sein-Echaluce, M.L., García-Peñalvo, F.J. and Conde, M.Á., 2015. Using Learning Analytics to improve teamwork assessment. Computers in Human Behavior, 47, pp.149-156.
Howard, A. and Zellweger, M., 2018. T5-C: Assessing Teamwork in Large Classes.
Reinerman-Jones, L.E., Hughes, N., D’Agostino, A. and Matthews, G., 2019. Human performance metrics for the nuclear domain: A tool for evaluating measures of workload, situation awareness and teamwork. International journal of industrial ergonomics, 69, pp.217-227.
Salas, E., Shuffler, M.L., Thayer, A.L., Bedwell, W.L. and Lazzara, E.H., 2015. Understanding and improving teamwork in organizations: A scientifically based practical guide. Human Resource Management, 54(4), pp.599-622.
Salmon, P.M., Stanton, N.A. and Jenkins, D.P., 2017. Distributed situation awareness: Theory, measurement and application to teamwork. CRC Press.
Scholl, W., 2018. Effective teamwork—A theoretical model and a test in the field. In Understanding group behavior (pp. 127-146). Psychology Press.
Soraperra, I., Weisel, O., Kochavi, S., Leib, M., Shalev, H. and Shalvi, S., 2017. The bad consequences of teamwork. Economics Letters, 160, pp.12-15.
Talman, J., 2018, August. Enhancing Teamwork in Group Projects by Applying Principles of Project Management. In Innovations in Teaching & Learning Conference Proceedings(Vol. 10).
Tripathy, M., 2018. Building quality teamwork to achieve excellence in business organizations. International research journal of management, IT and social sciences, 5(3), pp.1-7.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Online market impact on Offline market

In today’s era, online market is biggest market and this market has even override offline market. Now, Offline market has become traditional market and any business that is not having their digital presence are losing their place from market. It is because online shopping gives opportunity to customers for variety of products which may not be available in case of offline shopping (Chen, Duan, and Zhou, 2017). Online market gives numerous options to customers while in case offline shopping, customers gets limited editions. This report consists of impact of online market on offline market and what are their benefits and disadvantages.
Impact of Online market on Offline market
Online market is a modern market which is growing very fast and every business whether it is big or small has to shift their business from offline retail shops to online e- commerce market. Companies who are making such changes in their business are losing their position from market (Guldi, and Herbst, 2017). There are numerous leading online stores which are not having offline shops or stores but then also they are leading businesses in retail sector i.e. Amazon, Flip kart, Snap deal, Myntra etc. There are numerous causes in which online market are impacting offline market such as promotion of products, customer service, order making process etc.
Through E-Commerce, companies can do promotion of products in interesting manner where customers can easily and fast attract for products. Lots of information related to products is present over online markets which can be costly in case of offline market while providing such information to customers. Online shopping has reduced cost of advertisements and it can be used almost in every business sector for promotion of company’s products. In case of customer service, online market more better customer services as compared to offline because it help in comparing prices of different products and also customers can for searching detailed data about products. Order making procedure is also simple as online orders are frequently booked i.e. hand- to- hand (Li, Shen, and Bart,2017).
Also customized product can be available to customers as per their needs and requirements. Online market have easily made good place in market and also new customers will be attracted. In case of offline markets, there were advertisements done only in one- way in order to attract customers. Now, in case of online market advertisements are done in two- way where customers can go for searching variety of products and also they can go for checking prices of various products and even they ask different questions to online retailers regarding products and services they are offering on e- commerce.

It has been summarized from the above study that online shopping impact offline business adversely. In the present study there are many reason are available for affecting the offline business. Online shopping makes the purchasing hassle-free. Further, populace gets things on their door step, no requirement of going anywhere. In addition, there are many other different effects of online markets on offline markets, i.e. decrease in turnover, profit margins of offline retailers, sales, revenue and more. It has been notice that online retailers have heavily influenced offline shops and most of them in a negative way. Apart from this, the current study also evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the online retailing. Multiple options: size and color, comfortable easy return policies are the main advantages of the online market. Moreover, complex return policy, lack of tangibility of the products frauds is the drawbacks of the online shopping.

Books and Journals
Chen, H., Duan, W. and Zhou, W., 2017. The interplay between free sampling and word of mouth in the online software market. Decision Support Systems. 95. pp.82-90.
Guldi, M. and Herbst, C.M., 2017. Offline effects of online connecting: the impact of broadband diffusion on teen fertility decisions. Journal of Population Economics. 30(1). pp.69-91.
Li, H., Shen, Q. and Bart, Y., 2017. Local market characteristics and online-to-offline commerce: an empirical analysis of Groupon. Management Science. 64(4). pp.1860-1878.
Liu, X., Guo, X., Wu, H. and Wu, T., 2016. The impact of individual and organizational reputation on physicians’ appointments online. International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 20(4). pp.551-577.
Melis, K., Campo, K., Breugelmans, E. and Lamey, L., 2015. The impact of the multi-channel retail mix on online store choice: does online experience matter?. Journal of Retailing. 91(2). pp.272-288.
Rahimzadeh, F. and Heydari, M., 2017. A Review of Ecommerce Competitive Advantages in International Trade. UCT JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES. 5(04). pp.79-85.
Razali, R., and et.al., 2018. The influences of effectiveness, competitive advantages and market accessibility on SME Performance in Malaysia. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 150, p. 05023). EDP Sciences.
Rrumbullaku, J. and Kume, K., 2017. The advantages of online shopping according to Albanian customers.
Wentrup, R., 2016. The online–offline balance: internationalization for Swedish online service providers. Journal of International Entrepreneurship. 14(4). pp.562-594.
Yang, J.G., 2018. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Commerce in China. In Entrepreneurship, Collaboration, and Innovation in the Modern Business Era (pp. 278-290). IGI Global.
Zhao, L. and Zhou, J., 2015. Analysis on the advantages and disadvantages of clothing network marketing. International Journal of Business and social science. 6(4).

Advantages and Disadvantages of marketing strategies

Marketing strategy are generally used in business in order to attract the larger number of customers for provided products and services by company. Every company has their unique marketing strategy which they use for the growth of business (D’Souza, and et.al., 2019). Hilton and Marriot are multinational groups which are having different marketing strategy for their business. Both the companies are having good brand image in hotel industry and biggest rivals of each other. The report consists of marketing strategies used by both groups to grow their business in market. It is important to know advantages and disadvantages of these marketing strategies in order to know which marketing strategy has really done better in market.
Marketing strategies used by Hilton Group
First and Foremost, marketing strategy used by Hilton Group so as to attract larger number of customers is Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning i.e. STP. Hilton Group hadalways segmented its products and services on the basis of its uniqueness and experience in market. There is less chance for company to be successful because this industry as limited scope to increase their market. Company in UK provide the high end of market with company’s product & services clearly depicting high standards and expensive as well (Gheribi, 2018). Company was having ability to attract high end customers which given organization competitive advantage as it always meets customer needs in areas of quality & class. It can be observed as company consists of 23% of total market segment globally. Hilton has also segmented its company’s products & services on geographically basis i.e. America, Australia, China, Middle East etc.

From the above, it can be concluded that both the companies have shifted from traditional marketing to modern marketing strategy. Both groups are having good social media presence which shows that Hotel industry is also changing with the transformation in society. Hilton mainly focusses on high end customers i.e. rich customers while Marriot Group generally capture attention of family-based customers. Hilton should change their marketing strategy in order to attract larger number of customers as UK’s more than half population consists of middle- class people. Marriot should also change it marketing strategy in order to maintain its position in market as company’s brand value as decreased by 8%. Hilton’s marketing strategies are better than Marriot Group as it is showing better results which can be observed as company’s brand value increased by 30%. Also, Hilton has recently added new innovative products in its portfolio because of which company’s brand value increased.  
Books and Journals
Alam, S., Alam, R., Ahmed, R. and Ahmed, W., 2017. Discriminant Analysis of Marketing Mix Factors’ in influencing the Use of Hotel Services in Pakistan. communities (Hampton, 2003).
D’Souza, C., and et.al., 2019. Environmental management systems: an alternative marketing strategy for sustainability. Journal of Strategic Marketing. 27(5). pp.417-434.
Fogel, D.S., 2019. Marriott and the Amazon Foundation: an example of strategic sustainability. The Business & Management Collection.
Gathara, S.N., 2018. Effect of Strategic Management Practices on Organizational Performance In The Hotel Industry-Nairobi, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-Africa).
Gbadamosi, A., 2019. MARKETING: THE PARADIGM SHIFT. Contemporary Issues in Marketing: Principles and Practice. p.1.
Gheribi, E., 2018. Competition Strategies of Selected International Hotels Groups on the Polish Market. J Tourism Hospit, 7(381), pp.2167-0269.Kim, B., Wang, S. and Heo, C.Y., 2017. Sensory marketing in hotels (No. CHAPTER). Routledge.
Myllys, J., 2016. The role of content marketing in company branding.
Nguyen, T., 2016. Study on the Marketing Strategy for MICE Industry-Case: Pearl River Hotel in Vietnam.
Ruiz-Alba, J., 2016. Internal Market Orientation: a solution to strategy implementation in organisations. New Vistas. 2(1). pp.34-38.